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Lecture 4

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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 1150
Carol L Dauda

Modern Contract Theories And Their Critics John Locke (1632­1704) – Liberty is traded for Governmental Protection  THINK INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION • Outlined basic liberal principles • Built on Hobbs’s theories (legitimacy of the church was slipping and were we can retain self preservation security will become the new church) • State of Nature: - we are peaceful and need no authority (in Natural State) - So why do we trade this for authority? - We trade our Freedom in Nature for Civil Freedom so… o We can organize ourselves to have our inherit rights (Life, liberty and possessions) o We make a contracts between individuals to further economic growth o We need political authority to regulate/uphold authority o WHAT WILLTHISAUTHORITY HAVE THE POWER TO DO? • Authority must: - be limited (fenced in) - have no absolute authority - can’t regulate to much • Locke coined the term Popular Sovereignty: (when the authority is voted in) • Were do we find Liberty: -In the absence of the law (this is the opposite of Hobbs) - Freedom from interference; freedom to own growth of wealth: -you can own as much land, as you can make productive - Unlimited Growth-when should this be limited? • STANCE ON WOMEN: - Women cannot be citizens because they cannot defend the realm - Marriage is just a contract (therefore it should be able to end- after children are legal age) Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) – Must make independent decisions • Not liberal theoristContract Theorist • Critic of Locke and the “English way of Doing things” • Natural State: -very innocent sense of self-preservation -“Amour-Soi” no reason for people to fear each other -men were completely free -are solitary -nature provides everything for us -Pité- recognition of suffering in others • “MAN IS BORN FREE BUT EVERYWHERE HE IS IN CHAINS” • Living in groups: -Once people started living in groups we began to compare talents, skills. -Competitions and Egos formed- DEVELOPMENT OF EGOTISTICAL SELF- REGARD -People began to take for themselves  beginning of inequality -End up with great inequality and agglomeration of the wealth (all wealth/property went to the eldest son) -“Amour-Propre” moved by the esteem of others • Believed Locke’s contract of the propertied class is not enough • Positive Freedom: the law can make you free -freedom in the law WE MAKE -need independent individual * NO GREAT DIFFERENCE IN WEALTH * • What is needed to trade freedom for liberty? -obeying the law that WE MAKE OURSELVES (general will) -in small territory (were we are involved in similar activities and there is no great difference in wealth) - we may need a guide (elected, by the small territory so they are best represented) -maybe you will be forced to be free • Emile; how to bring up a free individual in a free society - Emile was a young boy, and Rousseau wrote about how he should be taught - “Don’t teach Emile until he wants to learn”-Montessori approach - Be independent of emotion - Be economically independent - Encouraged independence of thought - ONLY MEN CAN BE RATIONAL - No dogma from the church Sophie: ROLE OF WOMEN -Emile’s intended -very rigorous religious education -cultivation of virtue and caring feelings -ROMANTIZED THE ROLE OF WOMENAND FAMILY -must remain materially and emotionally dependent on Emile-this will create close ties that cement the relationship FEARED PATRIARCHY WAS BREAKING DOWN -feared women would no longer obey their fathers - Women are manipulative and smart “sometimes to smart” Emile was a bestseller in the higher social classes Edmund Burke (1729-1797) (Revolution and Conservatism) THINK FRENCH REVOLUTION (BEFORE THE TERROR) • Conservative critic (wasn’t really conservative for the time) • Gets a very bad reputation • Was worried the F. Revolution would spread • Englishmen knew who they were, and know their freedom • “freedom should have a grounding in history and custom”-politics is about symbols-nationalism • we must take tradition into consideration • L
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