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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 1150
Carol L Dauda

9/23/2011 1Modern Contract Theorists And Their Critics 2 John Locke (1632-1704) –Most important liberal theorist who outlined basic modern liberal principles –State of nature: Locke presents a higher standard by which to measure legitimate authority: •In the state of nature we have property (our life, liberty and possessions) and can live together morally and peacefully •Need protection of our property Uphold contacts 3 • In order for men to surrender freedom in nature for civil freedom and accept political authority as legitimate: –Guarantee of property •Life, liberty and possessions –Governed by consent •Popular sovereignty (those who have property) –Limited political authority •Must be fenced in (something there so the authority wont be abused) – 4 • Where do men find liberty in the sovereign state? –In the absence of the law (limiting the state) –Freedom from interference to pursue our own ends –Realm of civil society (we can pursue our own wealth) Women in marriage, as individuals (During marriage, it is the husband that has the power, that comes from the natural law that the male has the father/ leader) You cannot terminate the contract until the children are raised! (CONTRACT AND CONSENT BECOME A BIG WORD FOR LOCKE) What is the limit to property and production? –Industriousness is our virtue (what makes us good, the value of nature was almost zero) –Own as much property as we can make productive –Limited only by the capacity to produce 1 9/23/2011 •Unlimited growth 5 J. J. Rousseau (1712-1778) • Not a liberal, he is a great critic of Locke. • He is interested in the issues that are taking place. • He wrote on social contract • Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains –Creates a higher standard in the state of nature –In the State of nature: •Men are completely free •Are solitary (mostly live on their own) •No need for competition –Nature is bountiful and provides everything (there are no worries, everything is there) –Amour-soi – an innocent self-preservation –Pitié – recognition of suffering in others 6 • The problem with property –Once people live together in social groups rivalry, competition arises (pretty soon people start differentiating) –Amour-propre (very self involved kinda idea) •Moved by the esteem of others, develop egotistical self-regard –Property creates great inequality (Taking for yourself) –Locke’s contract of the propertied class is not adequate (that is not going to bring you freedom, it is just going to bring you inequality) 7 • What is needed for men to trade natural liberty for civil liberty? –Obeying a law that we make for ourselves •Direct democracy, not representative •Must express the general will (consensus among the population) –Civil liberty is positive freedom •Freedom is in the law we make for ourselves (unlike that freedom is where the law isn’t – it’s a law we make for ourselves) •Needs independent individuals, no great difference in wealth •May need a guide 8 • How might one bring up a free individual in a free society – Emile, On Education (1762) –Education for Emile will encourage independence of thought (creating circumstances that the individual is going to want to do what you set out- ex. Reading – the letter to emile) –Only men can be rational, independent individuals 2 9/23/2011 –Women’s role is to be the support for the rational and independent individual 9 • Sophie’s education –Cultivation of caring feelings (very religious education) –Religious observance –Cultivation of virtue –Must remain materially and emotionally dependent –Dependence on Emile and her family creates close ties that cement the relationship SOPHIE SHOULD BE SURROUNDED BY EMOTIONS 10 • Rousseau presents romanticized view of women’s role • The woman as the caregiver, and the fail being nurtured by the women. –Feared that with changing relations women would no longer obey the father (he was afrid they would no longer want to marry) –The foundation of a state with rational and free individuals was the subordinate role of women –Emile, On Education was exceedingly popular with the propertied class 11 Revolution and conservatism: Edmund Burke (1729-1797) Is a critic and a conservative Burke fought very hard for dissenters (those who were not from English church) Dissenters were not allowed to hold seats in parliament Liberty equality and fraternity; empty of historical experiences. He predicted that those ideas would be used for corrosive measures –Thoughts on the French revolution: •Freedom must have grounding in history and custom (English men know who they’re because they have lived it) •One must take into consideration tradition –worried about getting to the war of all wars. We can just throw traditions out
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