Class Notes (836,997)
Canada (510,028)
POLS 1400 (219)
Nanita Mohan (163)

Week 11 and 12

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Political Science
POLS 1400
Nanita Mohan

Week Eleven/Twelve: Minority Rights, Gender and Federalism Diversity and Politics Multiculturalism in Canada  Definition:  “Canadian multiculturalism is fundamental to our belief that all citizens are equal. Multiculturalism ensures that all citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging…….. the Canadian experience has shown that multiculturalism encourages racial and ethnic harmony and cross-cultural understanding, and discourages ghettoization, hatred, discrimination and violence” – Heritage Canada  History of Multiculturalism  European Settlers ( French and English)  Aboriginals  Ethnic Minorities Multiculturalism In Canada  Politics of Multiculturalism  Royal Proclamation of 1763  Constitution Act 1867  The Citizenship Branch ( 60s,70s)  Royal Commission of Bilingualism and Biculturalism ( 1960s)  The Vertical Mosaic ( 1965)  First Official Multiculturalism Policy ( 1971)  Minister of Multiculturalism 1972  Canadian Consultative Council of Multiculturalism  Constitution Act 1982  Canadian Multiculturalism Act 1988  Multiculturalism Program – Canadian Heritage - pre 1971 – incipient stage (emerging) - 1972-1982 formative area, everything becoming a policy - 1982+ institutional period of multiculturalism Canadian Multiculturalism Act - As a policy of the Government of Canada, all Federal Institutions must: A. ensure that Canadians of all origins have an equal opportunity to obtain employment and advancement in those institutions; B. promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the ability of Canadian Individuals and communities of all origins to contribute to the continuing evolution of Canada; C. promote policies, programs and practices that enhance the understanding of an respect for the diversity of the members of Canadian society; policies, programs and practices that are sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada; E. make use, as appropriate, of the language skills and cultural F. generally carry on activities in a manner that is sensitive and responsive to the multicultural reality of Canada.  Diversity and Political Representation 130houulale Ethnic (E%e20tMe inorities uoe sropds usn003 e ) Multiculturalism Program Department of Canadian Heritage -  Black History Monthmote Multiculturalism in Canada  International Day For the Elimination of Racial Discrimination ( March 21 )  Canada 2017 Policy Forum Immigration in Canada: History of Immigration Policies  per yearigration Act, 200-400 thousand new Canadians allowed  The Chinese Immigration Acts (1885, 1900, 1903) – charged 5,50,100 to come into canada  The Immigration Act ( 1906) – expand the list of people disabilities, prostitutes, if occurred after entrance to country they would be deported  The 1923 Chinese Immigration Act – worst, prohibited all person exception was diplomatoming to Canada, 20 years it stood, only  The Immigration Act (1910) – prohibiting Mennonites and gypsys  The Immigration Act (1952) – did not discriminate against races,  “Favored Nations” listad decisions on who was allowed to enter  The Immigration Act (1967) – SIGNIFICANT – took away all discrimination implemented point system  The Immigration Act (1976) – MOST SIGNIFICANT (Introduced Point and Category System) – every immigrant fell under a certain category, could use points to come here  Bill C-86 – New Amendments for Refugees  2002 Immigration and Refugees Act – New Category system – immigration act that we have today Key Features of the 1976 Immigration Act  It set clear objectives for Canada’s immigration policy  It created four distinct categories of immigrants  It formally separated refugees from other immigrants  When discussing selection criteria, it replaced the term “prohibited” with “inadmissible  It committed the federal government to developing an annual plan for immigration policy  It allowed the federal government to enter into agreements with individual provinces  It required the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration to table an annual report on the government’s immigration plan in Parliament 2002 Immigration and Refugee Protections Act  KEY FACTORS  Post 911 Situation  The Need for more skilled workers  Refugee status  KEY CHANGES 1. Streamlined Immigration Process  Inadmissible foreign nationals cannot appeal process  Permanent Resident Card  Security Certificates  Temporary Resident Permits  Secure Flight Policy/Specified Person’s list 2. Broadened Criteria for Selecting Immigrants  More emphasis on Skilled Workers class than the other categories.  Changed the point system of skilled class immigrants.  Clarifies residency requirements  Expands the definition of “dependents”  Clarifies rights of permanent residence vs. foreign nationals  Skilled worker, business, international adoption and family Citizenship and Immigration Canada  In Canada, citizenship and immigration are separated into two categories, but they form one department. RESPONSIBILITIES  Immigration  Developing policies  setting annual immigration levels  Resettling new immigrants  removing immigrants who have lost their status  Citizenship  Developing criteria for Canadian citizenship  Granting citizenship to new Canadians (test and oath)  Providing physical proof of citizenship (Citizenship Certificate)  Promoting importance of being a citizen ( E.g. National Citizenship Week) Gender Politics in Canada  Economic Inequality  Political Under-representation  Achievements in Law Gender Inequality in Canada- Women’s Economic Situation  “equal pay for work of equal value”  The problem:  Women doing the same job as men were paid similarly (i.e. equal pay for equal work)  …but the workforce is gender segregated  Some jobs are dominantly male, others dominantly female  And the jobs that are dominantly female tend to be less well paid.  i.e. discrimination is systemic Equal Pay for Equal Work The facts about equal pay for equal work The Employment Standards Act, 2000 (ESA) provides that women and men must receive equal pay when:  doing substantially the same kind of work  requiring the same skill, effort and responsibility  performed under similar working conditions in the same establishment Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value  For example, the male-dominated job of hospital research technician receives 125 points for skill, 55 for responsibility, 50 for effort and 20 for working conditions. That job is "worth" a total of 250 points.  A Female-dominated job of nutritionist working in the same hospital receives 145 points for skill, 65 for responsibility, 30 for effort and 10 for working conditions. Overall, it also scores 250 points.  Therefore, the nutritionist should be paid the same salary as the technician. Gender Inequality - Data on the overall gender wage gap  Explanatory factors  Diff
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