• Machiavelli, that he is generally regarded as the teacher of evil, if it there is a motto it
would be “by whatever means necessary”, if you look at morality, not must the ruler be
virtues to everyone, he changes it, he says “are you kidding me”, he states that you have
to be aware of the circumstances, it would be safe to assume that it the evil learned as a
leader is one that it is learned, he states that the ruler should use religion to his benefit,
‘the dirty hands of politics”, if you’re a nice guy then you shouldn’t be in politics,
Machiavelli wanted to get the church away from the rule, he tells us that you have to
know when to be moral and when not to be, it is important to have the appearance of
morality and religious and actually not be, new amoral realism, this evil teacher should
be qualified, his approach is a departure from the ancients, it is empirical, he thinks you
need to emulate the leaders of the past, always be focused on war. Chapter 18, he says
something curious, he says it is necessary for the prince to use well the beast and the
man, it was covertly by the ancient writers. He means the ancients showed this secretly
and by a character. It was already there, this separates him by showing nobility by not
hiding it and by actually saying what he wants to say. What he has shown to do is to
reject previous authority, authority is self-made
• Next three are known as social contract theorist.
• Hobbes: He defends political absolutism he is discussed today in important at looking at
the modern state, Hobbes is important for International Relation, the relationship between
modern states and previous? For Hobbes he would say no, there are different nation states
who are sovereign
• The essential text is the Leviathan, the date it was released is important because it was
three years prior to the Treaty to Westphalia.
• In the Leviathan, the state is represented that the ruler control everything that occurs,
within the states.
• He defends the equality of human beings, they are natural and have natural rights that
they must obtain
• What justifies the rule of the sovereign? The acceptance of the people, all human beings
consent to the ruler to provide peace among the state.
• State of Nature: We can look at it as a pre-social form of state or for Hobbes is a
condition of maximum insecurity. In a state of nature, humans have natural laws, there
are no boundaries to what we can do. He calls it a state of war of all against all, there are
fears in everyday life, he described it that way, he saw life as short, nasty and brutish.
• Who is he? He entered Oxford at the age of 14, he was a tutor for most of his life, it is
important to note that he lived during the British Civil Law, this is an indicative to his
life. The civil wars provided an example of maximum insecurity, here is an authority that
can’t solve disputes, he witness the execution of King Charles I, this was a time in
Europe outside the political realm was science, there was a new science being brought
forward by Galileo and Descartes, he wants to reject the ancients, he wants to start from
scratch by reducing the human to its fundamentals, which is matter and motion. He is
particularly against Aristotle, Hobbes approach is scientific, he start with the individual
and he state to understand society, one has to understand how the individual works. To
Aristotle says that human beings by nature are political animals.
• Hobbes is antitilieligical, he says that humans consist of matter, he also differs in
another way, Hobbes believed that the actions by humans is to avoid evil, his greatest evil is a violent death. Aristotle says that there is a purpose to our live, Hobbes says we enter
society is because we fear the evil death that other can bring to us.
• For Hobbes, is to choose life over death, his point is that life is peace and security, these
are the highest ideals for humans.
• Political Ideal: He attempts to show a representative gov’t, Hobbes saw that the
sovereign is the representatives of the people, because the people chose him, Hobbes
differs with the expectation from the sovereign, he is supposed to maintain peaceful
social state among the people. Justice is obedience to the sovereign, Hobbes is defending
and indirect gov’t, he doesn’t want the people to rule, the sovereign is not the people, he
calls it “artificial sovereign”. Artifical is the human creation of someone fit to rule.
• Only through convention decision making should be done
• Science is the highest form of art, it is the highest kind of achievement humans can do, it
is knowledge of cause and effect. As a modern, he would see politics as a science, how
can we have this, he state we can make the science of politics, he wants to liberate it from
nature and fortuna, science is a tool to remake nature, by looking at human nature and
breaking it down to its elements will achieve success in science. He