• Rousseau: He was a very well-known Republican.
• For Hobbes, in a state of nature, everyone is war of all against all
• Nascent Stage, the earliest human being in a political spectrum in the nature of state,
when we transfer from state on nature to civil society it is one of the aesthetics
• Rousseau would say that man is like animals
• What separates him from the other social theorist is that he has nostalgia of the ancients,
he never appeals to natural law, like the ancients.
• He was born (1712 -1778), he died about a decade before the French Revolution,
Rousseau was the inspiration behind the French Revolution.
• He was born in Switzerland, his father treats him like shit due to the fact his mother died
giving birth, his father leaves him at the age of 10, his family friends try’s to convert him
into Catholicism, he is then giving to a women who gives a pre-education before going
into Italy, he joins this women and has an affair, he travels, at the age of 30 he tries to
gain become a musician and fails, he meets some French women, they have 5 children
but gives the children away, he joins the philosophes, he becomes famous for his
contribution to an essay writing contest, that asked, has the restoration of the arts of
science would create improvement, he said no, they actually lead to corruption, “man is
good by nature, it is institutions that make man evil”.
• Discourse of Inequality…. It is his second writing in which he become the most popular.
He Is arguing that we are born free and equal, one of the things that separates him from
the others, he might be the first thinker to put an emphasize on the historical approach on
society. He wants to have anthropological account, he looks around in his own society,
and he hates it, he believes that they are envious, greedy, and he goes backwards, and
tries to find how we were in the origins, he has limitation, he contradicts himself, as he
says you can still find these beings on society.
• Second approach is Introspection,
• Inequality: He is focused on moral political inequalities, how is that we were all born
equal and free and end up being brought down by society.
• Like the other he start with the state of nature, he says “this state of nature no longer
exists, perhaps never did or will, but it is an useful starting point, in which one can form
an idea in today’s modern state”.
• He says that originally human beings have two principle self-preservation (in which
agrees with hobbes and locke), and sentiment of pity/compassion, it is impossible for
human beings to be hostile to one another. This idea of compassion and pity, it doesn’t
mean that you are driven in helping one another, it means if you see someone suffering,
you would feel it.
• This natural human being differs, he state that the human being wants to be left alone, he
doesn’t want to do harm to anyone else, he gets fine by satisfying himself, his needs are
Sex, food and sleep, in the state of nature there is not romance, you hook up with
whoever, there is no language or reason or community, the only reason you need speech
and reason is because you live in a community,
• Original Nature: You cant look at nature, and say we can derive certain laws, which was
the view of the ancients, this doesn’t work for him, one of the things he does is go back to
hobbes, he says that their mistakes is that to take human beings in the current state, and
mistakenly make is those social aspects are the original natures • He looks at the “locking the door”, he says that it is wrong, you judge people based on
current events as the state of nature
• He thinks those who advance natural law, are those philosopher, is that natural is so
complex that there is no basis it.
• Savage Man: Are no interested in harming other, expect for scarcity, if it comes to the
necessity of surviving, and were people can actually harm others. The conditions have to
be such that it forces the human being to do so. Food is plentiful for the majority of the
time, he just wonders not being interested on others, Sleep, he doesn’t have a home so he
will just sleep anywhere
• Conditions changes, the primitive human being realizes that things need to change, the
primitive sees an evolution to himself.
• Rousseau is interested in his society, he sees exploitation, violence, he concludes that
there is nothing natural to that, he said that it is not necessary but to chance events.
• Rousseau explains that the human in the state of nature is timid, he realizes that he
doesn’t have to run away.
• He says that his enemies aren’t other humans, but sickness, childhood and old age, he
says that savage man rarely get sick. These are all advantages are good outside of society,
but in society they lose these instincts, but Rousseau doesn’t think that it doesn’t
represent progress, the taiming and softening doesn’t represent those of human beings.
• The benefit of one night stands is that for the savage will not be jealous, or vengeance
being plotted. What you do in romantic love, it is a selection process, you chose a person
to develop a relation.
• Reason enter later on, social exist predate the junk of civil society.
• What is to remember, civil society are not communities.
• HE says, savages do not complain about their existence, because they do not kill
• Today’s man are always complaining about something about their lives.
• Private Property on the state of nature in itself is different than Locke
• Because being associated with private property related to all the bads in society. When he
first introduces private property, it is introduced in the final stages of the state of nature.
• When they become wise, “this branch can be a weapon”, the development of weapons, he
is saying that new conditions of life emerge, another one is population growth.
• The development of reflection, they realize, that with this capacity of this, is that they
become superior of other animals.
• The emergence of pride and other feeling come with the evolution, with population
growth causes the person to acknowledge other human beings.
• There is competition; this causes people not to trust ot