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Political theory.docx

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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 2000
Michelle Dumas

Lecture 1 What is political theory? you cant answer evaluated questions. It was this type of thinking which propel political science . the idea that you cannot make subjective claims . One discipline of science field. The purpose – to reveal and make clear of the fundamental problems. Socrates Freedom of the human mind is the benefit of political theory Modern theories – individual freedom Ancients – is to make good citizens and politicians jobs was to look upon moral matters as oppose to individual rights and way of life. th 20 century/concerns: positivism fact/value distinction Politeia = regime / constitution/ form of govt Fundalmental questions – define a regime? How are people govern – depend upon lots arostacy – Greeks philosophers didn’t think that a country or state should be ruled by many but the best and most equipped Regime is something particular. Which cause conflicts? Regime is consist of more than structures , it also consist the way of life , customs and religious aspects. Regime makes distinction of citizens within countries. How are regimes establish and found: institution are form from history - regime , philosopher state that regime are acting wills – history develop regimes – State craft – state should be run by like a ceo type (Donald trump) Famous philosophers arnt in the arm chair – they have relevance to political life itself Polis – city state (very small) each polis has their own god.. Ancient Greek stated that citizen didn’t have individual rights but duty to the state – democracy Lecture 2. Apology of Socrates Crito Apologia = define speech Darmonia = divine things Charges 1) Not believing in the god of the city 2) Corrupting the young Chaerephon Accusers: 1) First/ old accuser [Aristophanes cldous) * He’s very important because of prodigious He didn’t hate socrates but had a deep seated perception of socrates 2) Present accusers [metetis, anytas, lyon] Socrates stated that everyone including himself has a duty to the law (most follow the law of the city) A question that should be asked is who the source is Plato is present at the speech Other issues of the accusers – we don’t get to read about the accusers response, no one believe that this is the authentic true speech, which could stated that the apology of Socrates is a lie The issue – can Socrates claim be speaking the truth, can the truth be consistent with a non truthful speech (we know if the dialogue is not the truth) however Socrates claimed that he would speak the truth Plato claimed a philosopher lives the right way of life, so what about the cities ideology... in ways socrates put the city on the block Socrates claimed “The accusers are clever liars”, Socrates said I’m the simple minded speaker of the truth After socrates was put to death, they ended execution of philosophers after his death.. another question is whether would he have defended himself the same way if he was 30 appose to his old age and with a larger audience at the council Socrates started off the speech by claiming “that you guys all hate me” Socrates knew that it was impossible to convince the 501 jurors to think otherwise against him Socrates had 20 mins to convince the deep seated prodigious against him (18 A 7 *read that passage) that passage could say that it’s socrates legal right to defend himself Defence He started off by saying he would confess to the truth and nothing but the truth... nowhere does it say that he didn’t believe in god only the present accusers claimed this. Chefton went to the gods and ask them is there anyone wiser than socrates, Chefton went back to socrates and said he’s the wisest . socrates went back and tried to find people more wiser than them Socrates took the wisest people from Athens and ask them questions which he claimed to the conclusion that they aren’t wiser than him, so he came to the conclusion that he’s ignorant Socrates claimed that he believe what the actual meaning of “god” means and that he believe in darmonia Lecture 4 Plato, apology of socrates Crito Who is crito? A very good friend of socrates. Socrates claim that crito is one of the “many” (who aren’t that really expected). A friend but wouldn’t be the level of socrates. When crito went into his jail cell he allowed him to sleep which is important because it allowed socrates to dream. The dream that socrates had made him contradicted crito. In the dream socrates said he was approach by a women. Socrates is combine 2 verses in the Iliad in his dream. You die now or leave a great reputation or socrates could escape a little while long. If he escapes from prison he is already old. The choice recommended by the dream. Socrates could die and be sent to hatties or could be that he escape and go to phthia which is Thessaly. Thessaly is not the most honourable place to go nor do he have the strength to go there within 3 days. Is it just for socrates To escape prison: he says to crito to lets discuss it. If socrates wanted to escape from prison he could have. These are arguments crito present to socrates - Escape or ill lose a good friend, my reputation will suffer because I have all this money and i can save you so my reputation will suffer (i look upon to have money over friends), you have a duty towards yours and also to your son – you have duty to escape. The only thing that crito thinks about his is reputation and what the public will think about him. Crito forget to mention one thing, that socrates have a duty for the city. Socrates response was – the only thing that matters is the logos/ reasoning/speech. Socrates claimed that all critos points were pointless or irrelevant. Socrates drew a distinction from the opinions of the many and the few. 44 c 6 – Socrates gave him a hard time about the opinion of many - crito states that the many have all the power because they convicted socrates – socrates said you choose the good life regardless of the many. Crito says that it would be just for him and his to help socrates escape from Athens. Crito says your unmanly for not leaving or escaping. Crito claims that socrates is unmanly because he has a duty towards his sons. Is it just for socrates to escape Athens without the cities knowledge or permission. Socrates argument Doing injustice is never good or noble – crito agrees its never good to do injustive acts Doing injustice is wrong if onces doing injustice – Don’t return evil for evil - Crito’s Arg’Ts Socrates asked crito a question– if we flee Athens without persuading the some, are we doing evil to the some Socrates fabricated a conversation - socrates is replacing crito with the law, its like socrates is having a dialogue with himself The law made these arguments By writing the way, you intend to destroy the city. You are destroying the city law Socrates is a beneficiary to the state, you have a debt to the city of Athens, you either obey or try to persuade the law Socrates has made agreement with the law, Socrates accept the punishment Socrates ways will have a bad effect on his self, family, and friends, if socrates leave the people who know or is associated with socrates will be punished Socrates response “laws” Issue: Contradictionb/tw Apology [obey the god, not laws of Athens vs Crito unqualified obethe to laws of city Two arugment Lecture 3 Socrates argues if you accuse me of corrupting the youth they would have retaliated, even if he was arming them involuntary, he couldn’t be charged, because the laws of Athenian would place in jail or execute him, they would try to fix the problem and show him what he did wrong Socrates say: Life in itself, life isn’t that important if you cant exam it. Lecture: 4 Crito Socrates questions himself by using the laws of Athens The laws don’t necessary reps Socrates views... these laws aren’t necessary what socrates 50a 50b – laws Major tension 29c-d for the sake of philosophy he’s willing to break the law – he will break the law for something higher or higher law 51 a 11 – an individual has unqualified obedience to the law Resolve contradiction Socrates duty to the state outweighs his duty to the gods If socrates escapes he does harm to himself because he can’t practise philosophy Socrates is left in a situation which he arms most be done with either of his choices At the end of the day socrates commitment is towards philosophy – the life of reason and examination If he escape Athens can’t practise philosophy and if he drink the drank and dies that he help his accusers. Is there anyway he can win There could be other prevailing reasons why you would want to stay within a city Throughout the trail they told socrates to stop philosophizing and he said no, not living the true life is worth living It was stating that the charges which was placed upon socrates were because of a grudge or pre-existing problem. Because one of socrates good friends fought against Athens What is important – there is apparent tension that’s reconcile The apology – the obedience of the god and the obedience to the state Lecture 5: Plato, Republic Kallipolis – just city, beautiful city “seventh letter” Kallipolis is ruled by the philosopher – plato is going argue Moral sociology, book of justice, it also speaks to the power of poetry - what plato’s republic is potentially about How should we approach the text – approach the republic as dialogue or work of art or even a conversation - plato intended for the reader to take part in the conversation or dialogue. Utopia – the republic is a utopia – it should be read as a utopia The book is an extreme vision of politics It offers the acceptance of justice and hormonal of the city A city without internal strike – which would make the best regime The republic is explanation of what a city would be if it was ruled by a philosopher Some people explains that plato is the modern day totalitarian The city is about education towards their citizen – not our type of system which maximize each individual potential Hes 28 is when the restored democracy excuted his friend and teacher socrates, he wrote the republic after socrates death Plato traveled alot and came back and opened up a school Lecture 6: Book one : - Cephalus - Polemarchus - Thrasymachus Book two: Ring of Gyges Glaucon Adamentus Booke one Socrates and his friend Cephalus, they coming back from a festival . Polemarchus confronted socrates and forced him to come with him. The philosophical question is who should rule, polemarchus wants to be rule by numbers and socrates wants to reason or rational argumentation Which is an indication of democracy of the many Can you reconcile for the amount of number oppose to reason Is it going to be a force by numbers and reason Cephalus – is the head of his family, he is very wealthy and hes a business man The first thing socrates say to celphalus is “how is it to be old”? and which means how is it to be you. Cephalus replied said he doesn’t mind to be old, he doesn’t have to worry about having sex or making money. At his age now he can honour his duty to the gods .socrates is going to critic on celphalus opinion Cephalus is paying a debt to the gods and giving back the things that was borrowed Socrates silienced cephalus, this is important because plato is basically saying that socrates silences convential of wisdom or knowledge which has been passed down throughout generations Polemarchus – honourable, loyal; fierce – in greek hes a warlord - friend, family, citizens : loyal, patriotic citizen Polemarchus comes in and say justice is helping your friend and harming your enemy – justice is speaking the true and giving back what ones take (3 31 e) Socrates basically said do you really know who your friends are.. and if you cannot define your friend you can’t help your friend or harm your friend... and you should never arm anyone, basically making things more unjust Thrasymachus (most important in the republic with socrates ) – aggressive, determine, annoyed with socrates, hes a teacher and educator, hard headed realist.. important engargement with socrates Thrasymachus - He confines justice has the interest of the stronger - has stronger he means the ruling group rules has the advantage of itself Socrates responed to it has, does a ruler ever make mistakes, Thras says yes, socrates said that if a ruler makes mistake, that means they can mistaken ruling for their advantage and rule for their disadvantage...thras says that not because a mathematician makes a mistake doesn’t mean hes not a mathematician... socrates used the idea of the principle of specialization. Basically socrates says that the function of the ruler is to care for the others and not for himself...thras – the Sheppard isn’t interested about the well being of the sheep but to make money and fatting the sheep... which could be explains has maybe that ruler only does care for oneself and not the others Lecture 6: Book 2 – plato republic - Ring of Gyges? Plato’s bros – Glaucon and Adamentus Justice is practices will contribution of wages People practice justice unwillingly, the life of the unjust men is better just – Socrates want to prove Doing anything you want (you can get away with them, other injustice is not suffereing any justice , the extremes If the unjustice men can do w.e they want their actions would be the same. Ring of gyges – the invisibility ring, gyges approach a ring and steals the ring, put it on and he becomes invisible – he then kills the king and sleep with the queen and becomes the king. The point is if there is 2 rings, give the injust men and just men a ring they would do the samething with the ring If the just men and injust will do the same , then justice is an agreement which means their is no natural justice, its just what you can get away with but you wouldn’t do it in sake of justice itself The point of the example is “ring of gyges” why is this ring ex. Introduce, hes trying to sacify glaucon and to determine whether or not if we’re just if its because we enter the agreement “ i wont arm anyone if you dong arm me” Are you just because you are force to be just?? Socrates would say that justice its it own reward thats why a person would be just to be just There are two people in the world nerds and bully, the nerds are unable to stand up to bully, they cry theirs unjustice because hes too weak to take on the bully, its injustice because individual lacks the strength so they cry fawl and use the word injustice 366 d socrates – most people would defend justice, because it brings honour and reputation... most people to defend justice for what it offers Socrates say – there is 2 types of justice – justice in the individual and justice in the city – the city is larger Socrates - lets make a city what do you need Adameintus answered the questioned that the city is in need of necessities which you need many people to delegate Socrates agree the principle of specialization – that one person has one function Glaucon say that city of necessities is a city of pigs/sows because there are no luxury War -> soldiers (auxiliaries) -> education of soldiers Triangle divided into 3 – top philosopher kings (reason) – middle auxiliaries ( spirits ) – Bottom craftman (appetite) The important point to remember is that it start off as a city and trying to explain an injust or just city. Lecture 7: Plato, Rep: The republic is about education Triparitite soul (triangle) top reason, middle spirit, bottom appetites When speaking of the spirit plato means for ex. An internal battle within yourself. The idea of center ship is advocated by socrates Socrates want to argue that recitation is imitation When socrates talk about auxiliaries, hes really talking about education Socrates has many things to say about the auxiliaries (which are soldiers) such has, 1)abolition of private property – they should not allow to own private property, 2) abolition of the family, they would have short term marriages which would be set up for the purpose of recreation, the only time the soldier would get sexual pleasure is when they do something heroic in battle, 3) role of the philosopher and king, the thing that seperates the philosopher king and auxiliaries is knowledge, Philosopher king is linked to reason , Auxiliaries is linked to spirit, Craftsmen is linked to appetites – Plato wants to argue for one person there is one job For this arrangement of whom is a craftsmen, auxiliaries or philosopher king is a noble lie – myth of metals gold, silver, bronze The lie is children are carefully watch, everyone is born with particular metal , they would have gold in their soul, Sometimes two craftsmen types can have a baby with a gold spirit – which creates problems because those craftsmen children would know their parents which would create problems if they get bumped up to auxiliaries How can this system create a just city because auxiliaries have to train all day, they don’t own their own private property and cant have a family. Socrates stated that the auxiliaries wouldn’t be happy. Socrates say if everyone do their job their would be harmony but he doesn’t answer the question of how would this city be just. Plato left out something important on how to be philosopher king, which is experience – he doesn’t talk about that Socrates argue that for the city to be just you most teach the individual or educate the person that reason should control spirit and appetite Socrates rank the best form of government – 1) aristocracy which is putting the best or most educated person on top 2) Timocracy 3) Oligarchy 4) Democracy (doing what one pleases) plato would argue that appetites would rule the spirit and philosopher king 5) Tyranny (ruled by anyone) Lecture 8: Artistotle 384-322 BC He was wealthy, father was a physician, not confirm but he was the tutor of Alexander great, looking at his practical philosopher 3 types of sciences – theortical, practical – ethics and politics (focuses on this one), and productive Nicomachgan ethics – this consist of his lecture of student from his school - his ethics wasn’t known whats good or how it should be but it most be place in practice he admits when your studying ethics you most look at its degree of precision, the nature of ethics has to be practical Aristotle looks to the natural world and will facture into ethics a nature is teleological – which means nature has a purpose it might not be clear but its there, things in nature as a special purpose in nature but by nature, everything in nature as a special function when virtue comes in it means to do it well – arête = virtue the largest purpose of a human being is Eudaimonia = happiness?? – Greeks thought of happiness as living well or human flourish its an end which is pursued for its own sake – its good for its own sake but nothing for its own sake = Eudaimonia arguements Aristotle made for pleasure was that animal share the same thing in pleasure Honour – the thing with honour is that its something which is placed upon, which means the person which placed that honour upon you can take it away from you, you want honour on distinction which turns out to be viture – meaning that honour has a mean to an end which makes it a virtue Money – thats not the highest life because you treat it to a practical end – if you were trapped on a island money is irrelevant Aristole about virture – you most exercise the virtue it must be practice – when your sleeping are you the perfect human being you can practice virture when your sleeping , Human good book 1 chpt 10 the human good is excellent activity of the part of the soul, that is the opportunity of the soul of virtue 10 98 a 16 Doctorine of the mean Extreme (excess) Virtue Extreme(differ) Rash/ Courage Cowardliness Foolhardness Pharonesis = practical wisdom Pharmonimos = man of practical wisdom Ergon = function We are not born virtuous – its by habit or trained- teach children when your – teaching when its right to be virtuous and then practice Aristotle world was the polis the city state In book one Aristotle – human being never live in isolation, the city is something that was not always existed Household came among each and form villages which grow and form a polis (city). The city came into existence which meant to live well. You choose between which lives. History develop in stages which the household would develop through history, has would the village and city. And this development would operate in a circle formation – meaning eventually the city or polis will be destroyed and it will go back to the household. The city provides a virtuous life but can be affected with such things such as famine. Through nature human form cities its natural. What so special about the city, it forces certain relations such has , friendship, poetry, reaching ones fullest potential, music, philosophy. The people in the earlier civilization could establish these skills. The household is only for reproduction, the villages arises from household by nature – the city is something natural – it arises from our nature -* think of the acorn and oak when studying Aristotle – the acorn naturally will fulfill its function to become a oak tree its natural. You could argue that naturally if you focus on the animal life they kill each other so does that mean that humans should or will kill eachother- Aristotle argue that humans naturally are cooperative. The famous remarks he made from book 1252 a 3- a human by a nature a political animal or social animal – human beings are born with a political impulse - the individual is being pushed towards a civic life – its a good thing we are pushed to this. There is no existence before the family. Rousseau would argue that there were something before family which was individuals which fought for themselves – Aristotle arugued that rousseau doesn’t understand nature. Reasons why we’re political animal -Our general desire to be with others and our civic desire to apart of a political community. Only freemen could participate in real life, female or slaves cannot. He said that human beings go towards just cities because not all cities are just or made naturally Defective - tyranny, oligarchy, democracy Correct – kingship, aristocracy, *polity The city is prior by nature to village in the household – by nature the household is prior to the village by nature Slavery- there 2 major criticism to aristotle – he was talking about the city state which is very small and we have huge states so how is this relevant to us, he’s also against democracy, he wants to reform slavery – some people by their nature are suppose to be slavery When Aristotle talk about slaves – he means the ones who live within households, take care of the family, do chores and help farming Aristotle described slaves as ensouled tools – How does he argue slavery-some people by their nature are suppose to be slaves, some human being by natures are master, the relationship between the master and slaves are mutually beneficial The masters and slaves are that way simply by nature – slaves lack the facility of reason, he said that slaves don’t have reason and only the appetite of irrationality – they don’t have reason but they have just enough rational to obey orders How do they benefit – the natural slaves has the benefit of his master, so what he lacks for rational, the slave master would make up for it Al – Farabi (870-950) - He was an important in medieval area - Interpreted Aristotle with a muslim spin - Philosophy is the pursuit of the truth - To learn about the truth in islam you would only need to read Quran - He was responsible for bringing greek philosophy to islam - Centered inclusively to plato and Aristotle - He came out in favour of philosophy over religion - Religion is an imitation of philosophy - He wanted to preserve and respect religion - Philosophy provides significant contribution to knowledge - Religious belief is necessary in a community, you cant have a community without religious beliefs - He was the first philosopher to harmonized religion with philosopher - He writes for the tipical view of a muslim, whose keen on virtue and obeying the laws - The ancient Greeks applies to reason - He was saying that to still believe and read religion but just don’t accept it blindly but compare it philosophy to make it consistent Virtuous regime Definition of the virtue virtuous regime - The regime in which human beings come to together and corporate for the sake of becoming virtuous and performing noble activities - A political order to allow citizen to gain virtue - Perfection is possible - happiness (not attained until one perform certain activities) - Happiness – is attain from perfecting one reason – discipline is the appetite – you want the lower desire to corporate with reason to perform one desire - That developed and rationalize – this is the perfection which is offered to a certain few 3 classes in the virtuous regime The wise – philosophers – they know natural of things throughout their nature of things – they have the highest The
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