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Lec 2 - States Jan 9.docx

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Political Science
POLS 2100
Ian Spears

09/01/14 States - States allow large #’s of people to live together - They save us from anarchy - Their most fundamental job is to provide order and protection Max Weber’s definition of a “state” - The state as “the organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory” - Provide security from domestic threats - Settle disputes - Provide services (welfare, construction of schools, hospitals, roads) - Taxation - Has to be “stronger” than anything else in the territory - International vs. Domestic politics (anarchy vs. Orderly) - The territory within a state (country) by contrast is not anarchic because there is a state o Protects you from outside threats (hence armies) o And provides order inside of states (that is why they have police forces). o And that is why they need to be stronger (i.e. have a monopoly) than anyone else. - A state that is effective in providing order, it allows you to do other things State allows us to live together peacefully: - Once you have something strong enough to provide order - ...then you are secure enough to do other things like go for walks in the park or engage in commerce. - Has the capacity to enforce rules Charles tilly... - A state is a monopoly by force (according to Tilly) State control harder than you think: - Even in the U.S, the state can have trouble extending its authority to all places. - This map shows parts of Chicago and the gangs that control various neighbourhoods - In Canada, the state is strong but is that because population densities in the north are so small - Legitimacy – Weber’s form of legitimacy: - Tradition: some political leaders derive legitimacy from various political, social, and cultural traditions. - Some political leaders derive legitimacy from various social and cultural traditions - Ethiopia’s Emperor Haile Selassie (ruled from 1930 – 1974). Claimed to be part of the “Solomonic Line” 14-01-14 States Continued Quiz till the end of chapter 3 (O’Neil) - Charisma: people follow them not because of their connections to the past but because they themselves have the capacity to convince people that they can lead them to salvation - Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was Iran’s Supreme from 1979 – 1989 - Rational-legal authority: here legitimacy is based on a “system of laws and procedures that are presumed to be neutral and rational” and are highly institutionalized o Obey rules not because of tradition but b/c of a common agreement that they are correct and fair o Majority of people voted or approved of them o Ideal for western states ( what all states should adopt or aspire to (the western belief)) - Individuals are not as important as the offices they hold - When a leader of government is illegitimate, the state often collapses Legitimacy in S. Africa: - “Mandela became a more powerful figure --- not a lesser one--- the longer he was in jail... Eventually, they have to release him, since the government’s legitimacy decreases and the martyr’s increases.” - A.Fotheringham - A minority (illegitimate) government can’t continue to rule over a majority - Legitimacy can be earned and it can be “washed” Legitimacy in Afghanistan: - “The current government in Afghanistan’s claim to legitimacy is based entirely on a legal source- winning an election. Yet this has no historical basis for legitimizing Afghan rule. The winner of today’s election will largely be seen as illegitimate because he is elected.” - There is nothing traditional to Afghans about Western style election (foreign concept) - In order for Afghans to be legitimate, systems of government need to emerge from existing traditions Weber’s State: - For Weber, for states to be strong and viable, they need to be first; dominant (stronger than anyone else) and second they need to induce people to consent to their rule (and this is done through some form of legitimacy) - States sustain themselves because they are well institutionalized - An institution is a pattern of behaviour States and Institutions: - Any organization or pattern of activity that is self-perpetuating and valued for its own sake (and that emerge overtime) - Norms or values considered central to people’s lives, and thus are not easily changed - Well established institutions are not easily destroyed but are also not easily created (takes years and generations to be established) - Institutions often reflect, a country’s, a society’s, or a people’s culture or history o Baseball is an institution in the U.S. while Hockey is an institution in Canada - Are institutions transferable to other countries? Institutions in Developed States: - In states that are well institutionalized, the office transcends the individual that actually occupies that position. That is, the rules are stronger and longer lasting than the individual who occupies the office - When the rules are stronger than the individual , that is when you have a well institutionalized
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