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Lec 3 Continued.... Formation of states & Perspectives Jan 16

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Political Science
POLS 2100
Ian Spears

16-01-14 Continued.... State Formation in Europe: - Political processes often overtime evolved out of bargaining between parties - The process that made Europe homogeneous was war (from Tilly’s perspective) - Major states became a centre for commerce and trade, as things like laws and legal documents became deseminated, people started to speak a common dialect - People could now identify themselves through the institutions they share with the many thousands of people they’ve never met - Tillian perspective focuses on a much more violent process (Darwinian – struggle for survival) - Tillian perspective suggest that war and conflict had developmental benefits as it forced states to get their acts together or else they wouldn’t have survived - The process involved accumulating revenue to form an army by taxing people o This generated revenue but also it developed a beauracratic infrastructure to collect taxes o People wanted rights and other things in return for collecting taxes o The origin of states are protection rackets (according to Tilly) Colonialism in Africa: - The continent colonized by European powers - In the 1960s Europeans realized colonialism was not a good thing and they left Africa - Africa and other countries never had the benefit of wars in terms of state formation - States did not have to fight for survival the way Europeans had to State formation in the developing world: • Most former colonial states maintained their colonial borders. Because there were few interstate wars and because independence was granted no matter how strong they were, there was no survival-of-the-fittest; both the strong and the weak survive today. 3 different perspectives on the state: - Realist perspective, Liberal perspective, and a Marxist perspective o Charles Tilly is a realist o Realist Perspective: stress the importance of the state and the order it provides, because that is what makes us safer. o Relevant theorist: Hobbes (state of nature) (anarchy and war) o The chief concern for realists and Hobbes is security rather than liberty  Only once you are secure, (for realist) can you do other things  If there was no strong state, the society would be very dangerous
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