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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 2250
Tim Mau

POLS2250 January 21, Lecture 7 HENRI FAYOL (1841-1925) - His view of the key functions of management, created the first comprehensive theory FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT 1. TO FORECAST AND PLAN 2. TO ORGANIZE – building up structure both with financial and human resources, building a plan to reach objectives 3. TO COMMAND 4. TO CO-ORDINATE – bring together, unify, harmonize various aspects of organization 5. TO CONTROL – everything conforms with established rule and expressed command within organization  NOT VERY USEFUL FOR ASSISTING MANAGERS IN THEIR WORK OR ANALYZING WHAT THEY DO, BUT PART OF LEXICON OF MANAGEMENT GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT  DIVISION OF WORK – should be divided within organization, goal is to produce more and better work in daily operations, maximize productive capacity, division of labour will contribute to this objective  AUTHORITY & RESPONSIBILTY—authority is the right to give orders,  DISCIPLINE—expectation of discipline within organization  UNITY OF COMMAND—notion that within organization its best structured if each subordinate reports to no more than one superior or there will be conflicting orders  UNITY OF DIRECTION  REMUNERATION OF PERSONNEL—payment should be fair, reward well directed effort, no over payment, various different forms of payment—time (hourly), job (paid to perform completion of particular task), or piece (paid per unit produced, or commission in modern days) rates  CENTRALIZATION—must find optimal balance of centralizing control and decentralizing decisions to others FREDERICK TAYLOR (1856-1915)  SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT OR ‗TAYLORISM‖ O Work reflected naivety of early theories,  ―BEST MANAGEMENT IS A TRUE SCIENCE‖ O You can scientifically study work and then determine the best way to structure the job to maximize efficiency  ―ONE BEST WAY‖ TO PERFORM TASKS O Best craftsperson of era knew how those tasks could best be performed O Wanted to examine every task through a scientific process, looking at the best of the best, so all workers could replicate the ‗best method‘  DISCOVERED THROUGH SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND APPLIED BY OTHERS  TIME AND MOTION STUDIES  NEW ROLE FOR MANAGERS – DESIGN AND CONDUCT EXPERIMENTS; TRAIN AND SUPERVISE IN TECHNIQUES O Had to design and ascertain experiments to determine the best way then train people based on these findings  Changing structure of capitalism, emphasis on specialization and division of labour effects his theory LUTHER GULICK & LYNDALL URWICK POSDCORB PLANNING – ORGANIZING – STAFFING – DIRECTING – CO-ORDINATING – REPORTING – BUDGETING  Build on work of others, 7 managerial functions PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT  PRINCIPLE OF CORRESPONDENCE O Notion that authority and responsibility should be co-terminus (covering the same area)  PRINCIPLE OF RESPONSIBILITY O Superiors should be responsibly of action of their subordinates  SCALAR PRINCIPLE O Drop a line from top of organization to bottom  PRINCIPLE OF SPAN OF CONTROL O Reasonable limits on how many people one superior can reasonably manage, no supervisor can adequately direct work of more than 5-6 subordinates O If you have more then its more challenging to actually oversee them O If you remove too many mangers than workers feel alienated as they don‘t really have a relationship with their manager who is over worked  PRINCIPLE OF SPECIALIZATION  PRINCIPLE OF CO-ORDINATION  PRINCIPLE OF DEFINITION O You need to clearly describe various positions in organization DIVISION OF WORK PURPOSE, PROCESS, PERSONS OR THINGS, AND PLACE - Organize labour through purpose, advantage in that it has focus for public - Process: various departments for certain things like the lawyers or accountants concentrated in one place, this emphasizes skills of these units but may obscure purpose of organization - Things: minimizes advantages associated with specialization of labour APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY TO THE CANADIAN PUBLIC SERVICE  MODERN STATE EVOLVED AS AN AMALGAMATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON BUREUCRATIC PRINCIPLES  EARLY EMERGENCE OF A PROFESSIONALIZED PUBLIC SERVICE o CIVIL SERVICE ACT *1868)—‗INSIDE‘ VS ‗OUTSIDE‘ SERVICE; CIVIL SERVICE BOARD (LIMITED AUTHORITY) o Began to implement system of examination to determine qualification for positions but lack authority to control political appointments, patronage was still alive and well o CIVIL SERVICE ACT (1882)—BOARDS OF EXAMINERS CREATED; MINISTERS STILL ABLE TO APPOINT FROM A LSIT OF APPROVED CANDIDATES o CIVIL SERVICE AMENDMENT ACT (1908)—CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION REPLACES BOARD; COMPETETIVE EXAMS FOR ‗INSIDE‘ SERVICE (ANYONE INSIDE OTTAWA) o CSA (1918)—ENTIRE SERVICE UNDER CIVIL SERVICE COMISSION o CLASSIFICATION EXERCISE OF 1919 – reclassify all position of government on basis of duties and recommend legislation that resulted in classification of public service, they couldn‘t undertake this task so they hired outside consultants, systematic classification of public service jobs transpired, document presented to parliament  PUBLIC BUREAUCRACY ONE OF THE THOERIES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY TO THE CANADIAN PUBLIC SERVICE  MODERN STATE EVOLVED AS AN AMALGAMATION OF COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON BUREAUCRATIC PRINCIPLES  EARLY EMERGENCE OF A PROFESSIONALIZED PUBLIC SERVICE OCIVIL SERVICE ACT (1868) – ‗INSIDE‘ VS. ‗OUTSIDE‘ SERVICE; CIVIL SERVICE BOARD (LIMITED AUTHORITY) OCIVIL SERVICE ACT (1882) – BOARD OF EXAMINERS CREATED; MINISTERS STILL ABLE TO APPOINT FROM A LIST OF APPROVED CANDIDATES OCIVIL SERVICE AMENDMENT ACT (1908) – CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION REPLACES BOARD; COMPETITIVE EXAMS FOR ‗INSIDE‘ SERVICE OCIVIL SERVICE ACT (1918) – ENTIRE SERVICE UNDER CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION OCLASSIFICATION EXERCISE OF 1919  PUBLIC BUREAUCRACY ONE OF THE THEORIES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION January 23, Lecture 8 NEO-CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY  First to criticise classical school  GAINED PROMINENCE IN MID-1940s TO 1950s  BUT NEVER REPLACED CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY  CRITICISED CLASSICAL THEORISTS FOR EMPHASIS ON STRUCTURE  KEY THEORISTS: CHESTER BARNARD, ROBERT MERTON, HERBERT SIMON, PHILIP SELZNICK CHESTER BARNARD (1886-1961)  Wrote a book about functions of the executive, product of experiences working in NJ bell telephone  DE-EMPHASIZED AUTHORITARIAN TOP-DOWN MODEL o Instead of just doing what your bosses tell you  STRESSED INSTEAD: o THE IMPORTANCE OF CO-OPERATION IN ORGANIZATIONS o GROUP OVER THE INDIVIDUAL o MORALITY AND LEADERSHIP o When executives issues orders that were impossible to carry out or were seen by subordinates as exceeding power of authority of individual, people simply did not do the task o Management should develop system that maintains level of effort from employee  INCENTIVES ARE NEEDED TO MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES o If there is not enough incentive, employees will reduce level of contribution o This is somewhat similar to classical theory o Role of executive is to: a. Establish sense of purpose or moral code b. Establish system of formal and informal communication within organization ROBERT K. MERTON (1910-2003)  BUREAUCRACIES CAN BECOME DYSFUNCTIONAL o Officials should be methodical and prudent but Merton says they can be dysfunctional  ―TRAINED INCAPACITY‖ – ―ACTIONS BASED ON TRAINING AND SKILLS WHICH HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFULLY APPLIED IN THE PAST MAY RESULT IN INAPPROPRIATE RESPONSES UNDER CHANGED CONDITIONS‖ o Rules and regulations guide behaviour but constrain decision making , o Things applied in the past may lead
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