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Political Science
POLS 2250
Nanita Mohan

Textbook and Reading Notes –Final 40% Chapter 1: Intro to Public  Administration  What is public administration? - Different times - Internet technology people want more inclusion - Public servants are central to administration Importance and meaning of public administration - Increasing government activities at provincial, federal, and municipal levels - Two main areas are provision of services and enforcement of regulations - Research is costly but also essential to government - Canadians mostly recognize those programs that directly affect them - Public bureaucracy – organizational system for achieving government objectives - Elected officials actively make policy - Role of bureaucracy is the major focus for talking about policy The meaning of public administration  - Definition o The study and practice of the tasks associated with the conduct of the administrative state o The coordination of individual group efforts to carry out public policy o Use of managerial political and legal theories and processes to fulfil legislative executive and judicial governmental mandates for the provision of regulatory and service functions for the society as a whole or segments of it o The practice of public administration is carried out through the system of public bureaucracy o Working definition for the book is  the public civil or civic service including all matters of concern within itself all matters which impinge on it and all the matters of which it impinges Public administration versus Private administration - both involves cooperative group action - planning organizing staffing budgeting are always present - differences though, suggest a need for caution when transferring ideas from private to public sector organizations 1. overall mission is different o public administration is to serve public interest o private administration is profit 2. then it follows that private administration is more efficient o less incentive in the public realm to cut costs and be efficient since there is less competition and they are funded by the government 3. public officials are judged by their personalities and their policy initiatives so they do not care as much how their departments run o public sector has a much greater emphasis on accountability o in the private sector they just need to keep shareholders happy 4. human resource management is much more complex and rigid in the public sector a. harder to hire and fire public officials 5. public administration exists in a fishbowl of publicity they need to be accountable and responsive to the media as well - the two major characteristics of government that account for the differences are o vast scope and complexity of government activities o political environment where these activities take place - the differences aren’t too huge as many large private organizations are influenced by politics also and are required to be more accountable for pay equity and such The study of Public Administration  - 1887 Woodrow Wilson “the study of administration” - 1914 the study of Canada and its provinces 23 volumes by Shortt and Doherty - 1918 first study on a specific issue in Canada - 1929 the civil service of Canada - 1936 Richter and Mackay established first degree program for public administration in Canada at Dalhousie University, which is Carleton now - 1958 Canadian Public Administration was the first journal devoted to the subject - Increased in 60’s and 70’s Environment and Size of Public Administration  Environment of Public Administration 1. Globalization a. Death of distance and the borderless world b. Economic globalization means being creative to be competitive c. Cultural dimension beliefs in a worldwide system 2. Technological change a. Information processing technology changing communication b. E-Government c. Can hold issues for invasion of privacy d. Do we lack the personnel required to run the mass amount of information sharing 3. Political Culture a. People are less confident in the government b. Interest in participation is increasing c. More need to consult with the public about administration and policy 4. Financial Position a. Spending on services exceeded revenues b. We had to eliminate programs and privatize and fire public servants 5. Demography a. Changing age with our first boomers aging over 65 increases health care needs b. Women in the workforce and childcare c. Immigration and changes in preferences workplace needs to attract minorities 6. Legacy of Past Reforms a. Patronage to the merit principle b. Merit to New Public Management to be more efficient The Size of the Public Service - In 1950 total government spending was as a percent of GDP 21.3% - In 2004 it was 41.5% - More spending in provinces and more money led to an increase in demand for provincial powers - Need more employees to cover the expansion - In 2005 we had 3 million public servants which is 1/5 of the labor force - We need more management and technical services and less clerical work o Resulting in students being required to do more schooling o People constantly upgrading their skills and assets Issues and Themes  1. Power of the bureaucracy a. Power and influence of appointed individuals b. Political masters often have no training at specific jobs and the public servants with education and experience take control which means our elected representatives aren’t getting a huge say c. Turnover with elected officials where public officials get tenure 2. The Right Organizational Form a. People have wanted new forms of bureaucracy b. Less hierarchy less rules more motivation c. Want to make processes more workable 3. Crowded world a. Influence of public and media and information b. Influence of judiciary c. Village became a city 4. End of “bargain” a. Ministers and public servants have had a working relationship where the servants provide advice and assistance and in turn they get to be anonymous and have secure jobs b. Ministers do not want to protect them now and turn to people outside who are experts for advice instead which is offensive to servants 5. Competitive relations a. Public servants compete with others in the public sphere for competing values b. Hierarchy may be less important they are just different types of players in the same competition Chapter 2: Public Administration and  Organization Theory: The Structural  Foundation  - Look at structure and duties in bureasucarcay - Look at organization and types of organization and ways of improvement - First modern effort to theorize about organization of bureaucracy - We look at: o Max Weber o Fredrick Taylor o Luthor Gulick o Lyndall Urwick - Foundation of organization theory Max Weber: Classical Bureaucratic Theory  - Looked at bureaucracy in the context of authority - 3 authorities o Traditional authority claims legitimacy through religion or heredity o Charismatic authority claims legitimacy through outstanding personal characteristics o Rational authority claims legitimacy through rules and regulations – laws Characteristics of Weberian Bureaucracy (ideal) 1. Hierarchical structure (unity of command) clear line of authority 2. Specialization of labor 3. Employment and promotion on Merit 4. Fulltime employment 5. Decisions based on impersonal rules 6. Importance of written files 7. Bureaucrats job is separate from their private life Weber’s Views on Bureaucracy  - Love hate - On one hand bureaucracy is the most efficient method of organization - Technical skills of bureaucracy might overwhelm political leaders - Central challenge for any society was to propose ways to oppose the bureaucracy to keep a portion of humanity free - Impersonal mind numbing aspects Criticisms of Weber - Too much focus on the structure and not the human interaction - Overlooked the effect of workers on the organization by viewing people as cogs in a machine - Too strict to rules may mean they can’t achieve goals “red tape” - Strict division of labor is boring - Too many levels if everyone only has one boss - Who do you turn to for information - Measuring merit is hard - Part time or casual workers can be helpful Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management  - Arrangement of workers within the organization to eliminate waste, and waste of time - Slacking in factories o People will do as little as possible and; o Work arranged in a way that it could never be physically done anyways - Solution was to establish scientific standards to calculate how much work people can do and then refrain from adjusting that - Select people who perform really well then study them and time them o Learn the ideal method from the most efficient employees o Time and motion study - Calculate the best pace for people so it isn’t too much or too little to handle and can be consistent - Employers should pick people that fit the job - Giving people slips to identify those who meet the standard, those who were above made more money those below made less - Taylor seemed to lack concern for workers, he did promote cooperation between workers and managers but on the managers terms - Monotony in doing it the best way over and over Canadian Experience: from patronage to merit  - Taylor helped from patronage to merit - 1908 Civil Service Commission CSC for the merit principle - Duties for positions were not well defined so it was hard to know who best suited the jobs - 1918 the CSC was given the ability to appoint people to jobs an rearrange things o Systematic classification of all the positions around 50,000 o Reduce and streamline from overlapping agencies - Plugging people with certain skills into jobs demanding those skills was supposed to work perfectly but it only worked with specific skills such as a chemist or engineer it did not work so well with managers and other staff which it was hard to detect those skills in someone Gulick and Urwick: Scientific Theory of Organization  Span of control - Number of people who report to one manager - Controversial over what that number should be - When it is small the top is very different from the bottom, gives the top a lot of power and less power for the organization - Reducing distance from top to bottom the large span lessons control each level has - Depends on o Nature of work o Level of training o Geographical decentralization of work o Stability of the organization - Larger span is good because o Less managers saves money o Decrease isolation from top to bottom people understand each other more o Supervision is less needed as people have more education Organization of duties - Each worker can be characterized in four ways 1. Purpose they serve 2. Process they use 3. Persons or things they deal with 4. Place where they work - People with all 4 in common should be grouped together - Should it be organized by process or purpose, which is most important Staff and Line functions - Certain functions in management are o Planning organizing staffing directing coordinating reporting and budgeting o Complex - To deal with it he split staff and line functions o Line function (nurse) is directly involved in producing and distributing goods and services provided by the organization o Staff function (accounting) aids or supports without direct interaction with output - Typically can run smooth but the line workers do not always want advice from the staff workers who might not have any real experience doing the job - Clear lines of authority and procedures can help Herbert Simon and the Proverbs of Administration - For every principle of administration one can find a plausible opposite principle - He says it is like a pair of proverbs o Look before you leap vs those who hesitate are lost - For example in administration o It is efficient if each manager has a minimum number of people to manage o It is efficient if there are a minimal level of managers something must go through to be acted upon - He basically has an issue with organizing by purpose process people or place because one must be more important and we can’t know which - People reply saying you have to use judgment it was just a guideline - He replies if we have to use judgment it isn’t very scientific - He challenges you to find the proper use for the proper situation using science Decentralization and Deconcentration  - Decentralization suggest placing authority in the outlying unit - Deconcentration suggests dispersal of people in an organization with limited delegation of authority - Because of the large spans and diversity of Canada we thing of decentralization in terms of physically different locations but it can be anything - Accountability and responsiveness are important - Dispersal can be either based on deconcentration or decentralization - Want people to be able to respond quickly to local issues while following the rules of head office - Decentralization can be by place or by purpose o By place means regional offices with different purposes working together in different areas which is responsive and cooperating o By purpose could be deconcentration managers for different functions remain in one place each branch or regional office only serves one function it’s easy to be uniform but less responsive and less cooperative with other branches Chapter 3: Public Administration:  Organization theory: Humanistic  Response  Organizational humanism  - What should happen to maximize production in a factory - There is an informal system of worker control that must be taken into account - Upset the scientific thinking Mary Parker Follett - Basic philosophy from the rejection of using raw power in organizations - Focused on circular response and integration - People interact in way which influence each other, this is circular response o You do not have one person inflicting on another o Conflict will happen no matter how the organization is set up - Change makes conflict but provides conditions to help settle that exact conflict - Executives need to lead not wield power – appeal to peoples instincts Roethlisberger and Dickson and the Hawthorne Effect - Workers at Hawthorne electric company - Test different levels of lighting - Kept working harder each time because they were being studied and it had nothing to do with the lighting Chester Barnard and the importance of Cooperation - Wrote the functions of the executive - A good organization cooperates communicates and the people need to want it to survive - People have to contribute and they will if they are given inducements - They need to get as much as they give - Patronizing to workers at times – they depend on leadership and need to be motivated - Use cooperation to recruit the informal system - Interview was to determine if the persons personality fit with the workplace culture Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of needs 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Belonging and love 4. Esteem 5. Self-actualization - Money will only work until they reach the next level of needs and then workers will want more - Basis for participant management - Hard to operationalize Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y - Assumptions about human nature X o Dislike work, have to be forced, don’t want responsibility, just want security no ambition - Opposite to that is theory Y - The employees will react differently to the treatment from managers - If they treat them as X they will probably end up X - Maslow and McGregor think similarly about human nature being positive Principals of Organizational Humanism - Respect for workers as complex human beings with diverse needs - Distrust of simple one dimensional theories of motivation - Recognition that the informal organization can be just as instrumental as the formal one Criticisms - The community between managers and workers does not exist o Human relations is to keep workers under the interest of management - Profit motive - Management shaped impressions in order to control workers - Just another technique for control - Appears humanistic but is really only subtle - Too much about employee satisfaction not on production Participatory Management - An attempt to group all the criticisms from above - Tension could be controlled and - Peter Drucker thought webers views of powerful engines of efficiency were actually causing misdirection, these included o Bureaucracy o Hierarchy o And specialization - If one department puts too much effort on their own goals above the goals of the whole company it can result in inefficiency Organization Development - All organizations tend to become rigid or frozen - Purpose is to locate barriers to change and who organization how to plan for change - Recognizes a history which created a culture in each organization - The history or culture tends to have a negative impact called a “drag” - Drag is an underlying issue in the culture - It is hard to change the culture - General three phase approach o Unfreezing: unlearn dysfunctional behaviour o Changing: improvements identified and implemented o Refreezing: so the organization doesn’t revert back Total Quality Management - Popular in North America 1980’s or 90’s from W Edwards Deming - Statistical process control – find deviations from the idea production - TQM: get it done right the first time - Take a look at the auto industry in America they build cars cheap and fast and then employ a quality control company to go over the cars after and it costs money to fix the issues - In japan they take a long time and make sure the cars are quality but then they are sure the product is goof the first time and don’t have to fix anything - Basic tenant is eliminating quality control as a separate function and instead making every employee responsible for quality - Serve the customer - Culture based on quality and production - Focus on three components o Suppliers ensure supplies utilized for worker use o Employees analyze work to improve functioning o Communication with customers on how they define quality Criticisms of the participative approach - Huge commitment of resources - Turmoil and disruptive - Everyone has to be involved - Rumor mills and morale are affected by informal systems - It is said to be worth it in the long run but so hard in the short run management is reluctant - It is manipulated and guided by management not totally participatory - Is participation even possible with hierarchy Participative Management in the public sector - Bottom up doesn’t go with making ministers responsible - What about when people want clients to participate not only - Top down works better in practice The Canadian Experience - Minimal influence in Canadian government Other approaches Katz and Kahn’s Open Systems Approach - People put too much pressures on individuals involved and not enough on the actual environments in which the organization operates - Open system meaning the internal and the way it interacts with the outside - Successful organization develops negative entropy – the process of importing and storing more energy than it expands. Contingency Theory - Best way to organize is contingent on a number of factors which affect the organization o Technology o Size - Dynamic approach - Open to change and adjustment Theories of Motivation - Work or be fired - When its negative typically people just do the minimal in order to avoid punishment - Positive methods are more effective - Chris Argyruis Maturity – Immaturity theory: all organizations composed of individuals and a formal structure and tension arises because there is inconsistency with the behaviour of mature individuals and the needs of a formal organization o Characteristics of a mature individual: self-determination, independence, awareness, perspective, interest in deep challenging problems o Formal organizations based on: specialization, chain of command, unity of direction and span of control o So mature adults capable of intellectual stimulating challenges are placed in repatative easy tasks such as in a factory - Solutions are o Job enlargement o Group discussions on the workplace o Control less focused on finding fault than improving satisfaction - Frederick Herzberg: things that cause satisfaction are the reverse of things that cause dissatisfaction o He tested it an things causing satisfaction and dissatisfaction were totally different o People were satisfied if they felt they achieved something but they weren’t upset if they didn’t achieve something at work o People are not satisfied if the administration works but if it isn’t working they are upset - Hygene factors lead to dissatisfaction and motivators lead to satisfaction o List on pg 47 - Implications are that work environment needs to be pleasant enough to not cause dissatisfaction but any major improvements on satisfaction require changing the nature of the job itself - Hackman and Oldham say that it isn’t always just the nature of the job we need to focus on people and their training and match them to a proper job. - We could rotate people to give them variety such as in a factory - Job enlargement o Not horizontal (giving them a ton of the same meanining less tasks) but vertical (reducing control giving them responsibility to see how the organization runs) will lead to more satisfaction Emergent View Process - People assume managers have a choice and are rational when making organizational designs - This new view recognizes that managers face external constraints as well - When something happens it is random luck or chance not always rational logical deliberation - Decisions decided at a meeting where someone influential had a flat tire are going to be largely different just by chance - Chapter 5: Government Department and  Central Agencies  - Historically government services have been delivered through departments, crown corporations, independent regulatory agencies, all of which come in many shapes and sizes - New mechanisms have come up lately - They have made variations on traditional instruments but have also created new partnerships - This chapter focuses on the most traditional instrument for services: departments The legislature, executive, and departments - Three branches are legislative, executive and judiciary. Judiciary will be discussed later - Legislative branch o Queen o House of commons o Senate - Executive o Queen represented by the Governor General o And lieutenant governors of her provinces o They don’t act unless on advice from prime minister /cabinet o Basically executive branch is the cabinet or “government” and public service - The executive branch is accountable to the legislative branch Department  - JE Hodgetts definition is “department is an administrative unit comprising one or more organizational components over which a minister has direct ministerial management and control” - Convention that the minister supervise departments closely, ministers involvement in other areas are regulated - Structure page 71 Classification for departments  - So many departments
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