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POLS 3000 October 8 2013 Ethnicity and Identity in Africa.docx

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Political Science
POLS 3000
Ian Spears

October 8 2013, POLS 3000 POLS 3000 October 8 2013 Ethnicity and Identity in Africa Midterm October 15 2013 Quiz October 17 2013 Exam reminder: October 15 You must know the author’s names and their arguments You will be asked to identify true/false statements **There will be a map** 50 multiple-choice questions **All readings up to end of goldsmith: week six Ethnic identity and religious identity one of the most important things about how the politics work Internal diversity disappears (Rwanda) Accounts for the origins of “Hutu” and “Tutsi” in Rwanda 1) Identities are the creation of outsiders (ex: colonialists) 2) The “Hamitic” Myth: was applied to any region in Africa where there appeared to be evidence of organized state life a. Assumptions was that these “Hamites” (includes Tutsi) came from somewhere else, and when they arrived the brought with them technological “know how” and allowed them to “dominate” the people of the region i. Theory developed by Europeans 1. Plays into racists myths 2. That Africans who were there first were incapable of governing themselves a. The Hamites must have done it b. Outside of Africa ii. Europeans assumed that the Tutsi were a superior/ more intelligent race 1. Not just a different ethnic group but a different race iii. Both German and Belgium who ruled that part of Africa used the Tutsi to facilitate their rule 1. They issued identity cards The Hamites (Tutsi) were foreigners who brought technology and knowledge that allowed them to dominate the people who already lived in the region (Hutu). - Outsiders who are largely responsible for the creations of these identities o Europeans constructed these identities The sons of Noah and the “Hamitic Myth” - Japhet’s descendants are alleged to have stayed in the north and retained their “purity” - Ham’s descendants headed south, were the genius behind ancient Egypt (maybe Ethiopia) and eventually the Great Lakes region of Africa - Shem’s descendants became the Semitic people of the Middle East. o The Old Testament is the story of one of those nations: the Israelites, the Hebrews, and later the Jews. 1 October 8 2013, POLS 3000 During the Rwanda genocide they threw the bodies back to send them back to Ethiopia. 3) In this view the Tutsi are a royal clan and which expanded and controlled territory and people around a. Identity had less to do with Europeans and their racist theories but these were not the reasons for identity separations i. More to do with power relations between different groups within Rwanda b. “Colonial rule under Germany and then Belgium exacerbated and intensifies (but did not cause) divisions that were already there” i. (Newbury page 10) ii. Europeans weren’t creating ethnic identity but documenting an obvious disparity between the two groups what one might assume to be superior to the other Creating identities vs. utilizing existing identities An argument that the Tutsi is really a royal clan: powerful, and are really an ethnic group. The Hutu are not an ethnic group: not
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