Class Notes (838,386)
Canada (510,872)
POLS 3000 (64)
Ian Spears (41)
Lecture 2

3000 Week 2-6 Readings.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLS 3000
Professor
Ian Spears
Semester
Fall

Description
Week2ReadingsTheOnePartyIdeologyZoldbergDifficulttodeterminewhenthetransformationofpoliticalsystemsinwhichonepartywasdominantintoanewtypeWestAfricanpartystatebeganIdeaofadominantpartywascommonduringthenationalistphaseoPeopleincolonialterritoriesconstitutedanationintheprocessofbecomingoNationalliberationmovementwithabroadbasewasneededtosetthingsrightInsuchamovementelitesactedinnameofthemassessuccessorstoprecolonialstatesandasspokespersonforthegeneralwillInFrenchspeakingAfricatheachievementofpoliticalunitywassouthfirstattheinterterritoriallevelandthenattheterritoriallevel1946oWasachievedfortheterritoriesonlyafterselfgovernmentoSingleallencompassingmovementwasneverabandonedNounderdevelopedcountrywhichreacheditspoliticalmaturitywasabletodosowithoutgivingprimacytoasinglepoliticalartyonewithanoverwhelmingmajorityIdeareinforcedbyprocessofdecolonizationbargainingatmosphereoRightofdominantpartiestoactinthenameofthewholepeopleofaterritoryunderscrutinyoGoldCoastBritishgovernmentwouldhesitatetogiveindependenceuntilasubstantialmajorityshowedthattheywantedindependenceandhadagreeduponworkableconstitutionInmostofWestAfricaasortofpoliticalinflationsetinataboutthetimeofindependenceoOnce1958referendumwassetitwasdifficulttodepartfromitAssumptionofresponsibilityfortheaffairsofnewstatesproducedashockingawarenessofthemagnitudeoftheburdensofgovernmentinanunderdevelopedcountryoCanbeviewedasasourceofgreatpsychologicalpressureonindividualsModernAfricanscaughtupbetween2culturesowntraditionaloneandthatofmodernEuropeoBelievethatEuropeanissuperiortoAfricanbutareforcedtoassertconfidenceinthemselvesoWhenpoweristransferredtoAfricanonlythesourceofimportancehavechangedoThoseinvolvedintheprocessbecauseoftherolestheyoccupyareuncertainCulturalstrainsexistconfrontationwithunknownregionwithinadequatemapsoNewatjobsasrulersoJobsarenewbecauseoftheverydifferentconceptionsofgovernmentthatprevailinanewnationsvscolonialdependencyDuringtheterminalperiodofcolonizationEuropeanadministratorsandpolicymakershadbecomeconcernedwitheconomicsocialandpoliticalmodernizationsoMoreofaliberalluxuryvsthemorefundamentaltasksofmaintenanceofpoliticalorderandfinancialsoundnessoAnynewachievementswasevaluatedfromthepointofviewofthepaststateofaffairsoLittleconcernwiththegrowthofasenseofnationalityOutlookofAfricansuccessorsverydifferentoGovernmentundergonearevolutionofrisingexpectationsoKnewtheircountrieswerepooraccordingtostatisticsbyinternationalorganizationsoAcceptedthesestatisticsandcriteriaofhowtheirachievementsmustbeevaluatedoTriedtobringaboutfundamentalchangethroughgovernmentactionsoThoughttheremustbenationalintegrationoAuthorityexistsonlybythelargeproportionofthepopulationpositivelyacknowledgingitsloyaltytotheregimeStrainsarisenotonlybecausenewrulesadoptmoreburdensomegoalsandperceiveproblemsdifferentlybutalsobecausenewproblemsarisearoundthetimeofindependenceoPoliticalizationofexistingbasicloyaltiesoCountrymaybelessunifiedatthetimeofindependencethanadecadebeforeoIncreasedawarenessoftheimportanceofcentralauthoritiesandmoredemandsdirectedatthemFewfiltersforthesedemandsoGovernmentsmustshouldertheaddedexpenseofsovereigntyandaccomplishallthiswithrelativelynewandinexperiencedcivilserviceFurtherproblemsstemfromthechanginginternationalsystemoColonialofficialstendedtobehighlysuspiciousoftheactivitiesoftheircounterpartsoWithindependenceaWestAfricansubsystemcameintoexistenceNeighborswhoarestrangerswithsimilaraspirationsbutdifferenthabitsandopposinginterestsoContributedtoasenseofcrisisandgrowinginsecurityBelowallthistherewasanotherconcernonerarelyexpressedoAllAfricanswerebroughtupwithinapoliticalorderbuiltbywhatwereinitiallythemostpowerfulnationsintheworldoConstitutedthefamiliarorderofthingsandsuppliedappropriatereferencepointsoIndependencebroughtalackofbearingsandoverallsenseofinsecurityIftheycouldchangeordersofastwouldntanyonechallengetheordertheycreatedFacedwiththechangingorientationofgovernmentanddisappearanceoftheorganizationsprinciplesofpoliticallifeprovidedbythecolonialregimesandobsessedwithinadequaciesAfricanleadersneededsuitableconceptsofpoliticalorganizationcategoriesendsandmeansIdeologyisawayofcreatingorderoutofchaosforbothleadersandcountrymenoCanacquireanidentityTheCaseofGuineaProcessofideologyformationwasinitiallymostclearlyvisibleinGuineaoCanbeattributedtoachainofcircumstancesSekouTourespoliticalapprenticeshipintheranksoftheConfederationGenraleduTravailCGTCommunistcreatedFrenchlabourorganizationoBecameagovernmentpartywhilestillinmidstofinitialorganizationalspurtoInitiatedmorechangethananyotherlegalreformgovernmentfrom1957oChosethemoreradicalalternativeonalmosteveryissueoDebatesprovidedoccasionstoelaboratethepartyideologyMadedecisionstocampaignforanegativevoteintheReferendumontheissueoftheFrenchCommunityoCrisisfollowedoGuineanleaderslefttoowndevicesoFeltfullimpactofculturalstrainoBegantodrawupmessagesgovernmentprogramsetcAvailabilityofgovernmentmaterialscontributedtothecreationofawidespreadimpressionthattheGuineanregimewasdistinctiveinthatithadanideologyandthattherewerecorrespondingfundamentalstructuraldifferencesbetweenthemandotherpolitiesMustrememberthatinGuineaandmostothernewstatespoliticalthoughtisusuallynotformulatedbyprofessionalphilosophersbutpracticalpoliticiansoExpressedintheformofaddressestoannouncetoexplainandjustifychoicesBasicconcernthroughoutSekouTouresspeechesistheachievementofunityoBasicideologicalparadigmemergedveryearlyoThoughtthatwithoutpoliticalunitycolonialismwillbebeatenwithdifficultybecauseitwillseepintoAfricansocietyandexposeinternalcontradictionsoThoughttheremedywastouseallmeanstouniteAfricanpartiesintoasingleanticolonistfrontandforAfricanprogressFromthestatementsitiscleartheTourebelievesthato1Thereisanationaltrendtowardunityo2Africansocietiesaredividedo3Thesedivisionsaretobeviewedinanegativewayasinternalcontradictionso4Unityismanifestedinsupportforthedominantpartyo5FailureofunitycanstemonlyfromtheactionsofmenwhowillfullyintervenewiththenaturalcourseofhistoryFromthisschemeemergesaconceptionofthepoliticalcommunityoSomecriterionofmembershipisnecessaryifacommunityistohaveanysignificanceMostimportanttaskofstatewasthedefinitereinforcementoftheNationbymeansoftheeliminationofsequelsoftheregionalspiritandallracisttendenciesaccordingtoToureoCommunityisthusdefinedinpartisanpoliticaltermsoSupportforthepartyanditsideasisawayofenteringintoasocialcontractAsacommunitythepartyisnotexclusiveoMembershipdefinedvaguelyandinvolvesprimarilynoninvolvementinanotherpoliticalorganizationsoUnitydefinedessentiallyinanegativewaytheabsenceofoppositionToureappealedtoopponentsbutimpliedthattheyarenotmerelyindividualswhodisagreewiththepartyonlegitimategroundsbutratherthattheyaremorallydefectiveoIftheywanttobecomegoodmenmustjointhepartymoralcommunityAfterindependencethePDGvieweditselfasthemoralspearheadofallAfricaoPartybecomesthatofallAfricanswholovejusticeandfreedomBasicparadigmofunitywasextendedtoencompasstheentiresetofinstitutions
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