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Lecture 12

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Political Science
POLS 3060
Cindy Clarke

Politics of the Middle East and North Africa POLS 3060 February 25 2014 Lecture 12 Israel bombed Syrian trucks Egypt in Crisisfilm oReporter went to Egypt to talk to some Muslim Brotherhood members The Brothers were in charged of security checkpointsholding the Revolutions infrastructure together oMany people felt the Muslim Brotherhood were hijacking the revolution Some people are afraid of them oSupreme Council of the Supreme Forces ordered troops to come in and get rid of the public leftover at a major public square after Mubarek left Showed that the army did not support the peoplethey were not working with the people Military tortured people oThe Brotherhood kept talking to the military after the revolution Christians keep getting attacked by Islamiststhey looked to the government to help them but they were ignored oMilitary used force one night against peopleran cars against the people many were shot too oThe majority of people who voted for Morsi mainly voted for him because the other candidate was a Mubarekera General stSupreme Court said the Parliamentary January 31 elections invalidthe elections Morsi won They did this because most of the judges were from Mubareks era oDeep stateelements of Mubarek regime deeply rooted within the government oMilitary is very important in Egypttop landowner make many industrial materials and products etc Morsi wanted the military to stay out of politics so he elected a new leader for the military Sisi oMorsi took over the Mubarek toolkit of state control He argued it was necessary to do that because there were enemies around him and the deep state was against himstill authoritarian though oNew Constitutionminorities women etc were sidelinedgovernment wanted the new Constitution to include Sharia law The Constitution would give freedoms to minorities and womenas long as it conformed with Sharia law oMorsi created a decree that he had last call on what he found to be best for the country oTamaredmeans rebelthey made petitions for people to signthey wanted to impeach Morsi Morsi didnt take these people seriously though Tamared also wanted early presidential elections Ann Paterson of the USthought Egyptians should just deal with it because the alternative is much worse Tamared collected 22 million signatures but Morsi refused to step aside oEventually it all came to a point where the largest protest all across Egypt occurred They were chanting against Morsi and the Brotherhood Instead of conceding Morsi rounded his supporters and did a demonstration The possibility of a civil war was high July 1Sisi issued an ultimatumMorsi had 48 hours to meet the peoples demands or else Morsi responded by daring Sisi to come get him oJuly 3elite army unit dispatched to palace Morsi didnt foresee this Sisi suspended the Constitution oJuly 8 Shots fired at dawn a few days after Morsis arrest The army said they were provoked but the Brotherhood said the military started it oDivisions among the people were evident Some people were very much against the military takeover oThe US and Europe tried to convince Sisi to hold offthe Western powers threatened to cut off aid but those threats were ignored oThe deep state is still in charge Politics of the Middle East and North Africa POLS 3060 February 27 2014 Lecture 13 Political Culturedoes culture explain the lack of democracy in the Middle East What molds attitudes of society What are the fundamental influences Why is it hard for political scientists to use culture oInterpretive oA lot of room for bias oCulture is multifaceted oReducing cultures to stereotypes oAre culture and political types linked Or do they have nothing to do with each other Authoritarian rule and status of womenno causal explanation for why these two are linked together oHow do you measure it Methodological issues Three Perspectives on Political Culture oEssentialist Also called Orientalist oContextualist oCritical Essentialist Perspective oSee culture in determinist factorsculture plays a deterministic role Culture is the primary lens through which you examine political institutions Culture is deeply rooted within people oMost important cultural variable is Islama very deterministic factor Islam has molded peoples mindset You assume everything is homogenouspeople all practice the religion the same wayit is unchanging across time and place oMethodological focus on texts and historical analyses Look at the Koran Ethnographic work The Arab Minda book that basically says all Arabs think the same waywritten by Raphael Patai Argumenttribal practices of the past are so strong therefore the result is that we can treat the entire Arab world as one society which is described as extremely emotional and reject authority Examples of more writers Samuel Huntingtonwrote Clash of Civilizations oThe world is divided into several civilizations that define politics oHe says clashes are inevitable Cultures are fundamental to people so therefore they arent going to compromise over them As we increasingly have interactions with other people over the internet we are developing a sense of us versus themexacerbates things
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