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Plato’s The Republic - books 4-5, 7-8.docx

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Political Science
POLS 3130
Dennis Baker

Plato’s The Republic, Books 4 and 5 and 7 and 8 Book 4: Adeimantus and Glaucon – Plato’s two brothers Adeimantus – suggests being a ruler would be unpleasant as they have no private wealth ­ Socrates says goal of city is to make the city as a whole as happy as it can be, not one particular group ­ Compares the city to a statue – must deal with each individual part accordingly, can’t just paint the eyes purple because purple is a beautiful colour – eyes cannot be purple which takes away beauty from the concept of the statue Socrates – says there will be no wealth or poverty in the city since there will be no money Adeimantus – city with no money cannot defend against invaders Socrates – city has the best warriors, and neighbouring cities would aid them if promised spoils of war ­ Four virtues: o Wisdom – lies with the guardians – they know how the city should be run, their virtue becomes the city’s virtue – the only ones who possess knowledge o Courage – lies with the auxiliaries – they’re the ones who must fight for the city – civic courage - the right belief about what is and is not to be feared o Moderation – Identified with the agreement over who should rule the city o Justice – the accompaniment of moderation – the principle of specialization, the law that everyone does the job they are best suited for We have identified justice on a city-wide level, now must see if there is a similar virtue in the case of the individual Plato’s definition of justice – justice as a political arrangement in which each person plays the appropriate role – each is assigned the role that best suits their nature and best serves society Socrates claims there are there parts of the soul: - The three parts of the soul correspond to the three classes in the just city 1. Rational part – lusts after truth, reason and knowledge – most prominent among the guardians 2. Spirited part – lusts after honour – most prominent among auxiliaries 3. Appetitive part – lusts after everything else, i.e. food, drink, sex – prominent among the producing class Socrates has now identified justice on both political and individual levels ­ Justice amounts to the health of the soul: a just soul is a soul with its parts arranged appropriately Book 5: ­ Socrates – declares that females will be reared and trained alongside males o Same education and same political roles o Women are divided the same way as men – division among appetitive, spirited, and rational people – women fall along the same natural lines as men  He by no means feels that women and men are equal – states that in each class, women are inferior to men in all ways (i.e. the guardian women would be superior to the other two kinds of men, but inferior to men in her own class) ­ For guardians – sexual intercourse will take part during fixed times of the year at festivals o People who are more admirable may have up to four or five spouses in a single night at some of these festivals o All children produced during these mating rituals will be taken from their parents and reared together – no one knows which children came from which adults  If guardians have sex at an undesignated time, the child must be killed  Guardians must consider ever child born between 7 and 10 months after their copulation as their own – these children must in turn consider this group of adults as their parents – sexual relations between these two groups is forbidden ­ Socrates – explains that these rules regarding procreation are the only way to keep the city unified – everyone is considered
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