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Political Science
POLS 3670
Jordi Diez

Lecture 3- Tuesday January 15, 2013 Public Choice - Behaviouralism in the 1950's and 1960's is the use of the natural science method in the social sciences, influenced by the idea you can study humans in the same way you can study chemistry, that you can predict behaviours that you can predict a phenomena. Usually less associated with people on the right end of the political spectrum. Fundamental assumption is that human behaviours can be explained by looking at the individual. Public policy reflects what individuals do. Uses rational choice framework. - At the core of economics, rational choice framework explains all social behaviours as a collection of individual choices. For public choice theorists, you can explain policy using this framework. None state actors are going to vote for parties that will give them the best outcome, and none state actors will side with actors that give them the most and state actors respond by promising them everything and delivering the most they can in order to stay in power. - Rent Seeking- trying to get as much from the state and doing the least amount possible of work - 1. Why do welfare system differ from country to country - Certain policies are influenced by religion and this makes no sense. It is not what people want and the way people look at ideas influence the policies made - Also fairs to account for changes to policy over time. Looking at the last 40-50 years, there are changes in a reduction and increase in spending over time. But what explains those changes, - Public Choice Structuralism Agency vs. Structure. After 1960's, left wing approaches to public policy had an impact and for people on the left you have to look at structures to explain phenomenon, you have to take a broader perspective. Pluralism- the most important approach to public policy. - Became dominant approach to policy in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Has continued to have an influence on the way we study policy. Robert Dahl influenced pluralism, we have individuals and structure but policy is a result of how people in society organize themselves into groups and social policy. Difficult for us as individuals to influence policy. - Society has groups competing with one another to push for policy. The state is seen, as repository of all these various groups that compete for interest and the state has to react to these demands. Individual’s corrals around individuals articulate their demands and then argue for policy. Material interest drives people, but many other interests are incentives for people to push for policy other then material - The number of lobby groups- 50,000 in Washington. Resources are the key to many pluralists. - Some of the more refined takes on pluralism have looked at society. Pluralism has been refined in many ways and it has nonetheless remained fundamental to how we look at policy. - Shortcomings: policy entrepreneurs have an idea, and this might actually become implemented as a policy. - Paints a stark picture between the state and society, it can be blurry - Some policy networks we need to look at what’s happening outside them - Despite the shortcomings, pluralism is important as it moved away from the study of the state (Marxist, and public choice) and looked at how individuals, non-state actors, can influence policy. - Pluralism Shortcoming, good for looking at how the lobbyist groups influence policy, however, is limited at looking at policy in countries that don’t operate this way. Corporatism - The idea that society best to preform particular functions. Is the idea that we organize society into corporate and particular groups and this is how society will best function. Based on the notion that you organize society into corporate groups. Operates in Europe - Useful in understanding how policy is made in countries with formal mechanisms. Corporatism tackles the shortcomings of pluralism: The state actually, purposely organizes society and accounts for patterns of behaviours and allows you to study how this interaction takes place. - Shortcomings of pluralism- not all countries operate this way, so allows you to look at some countries but not others, it also becomes policy dependent. (Certain things, minimum wage, it helps you look at how policy is made but there’s more to policy) there is a tendency to focus on economic groups. Institutionalism/Neo-institutionalism - Refers to the role of institutions and the impact they have on the policy process. Called institutionalism because there was a rebirth and focus on institutionalisms in the 1990s. Since this time, we have seen the multiplication of a variety of approaches to institutionalism (social institutionalism, historical etc.) at the core is the idea that in democratic societies, institution shaped behaviours and institutions shape the choices made by groups and they shape human behaviours - We see, especially in the global south, we go beyond formal; we look at informal institutions as well. Parliaments, executives, cabinets (how they make policy and function etc.), also refer to norms and behaviours. - Important to question if the social forces outside institutions have an effect or not on institutions Lecture 3, Thursday, January 16, 2013 The Study of Public Policy in the Global South - …And developing societies has been for a long time been looked at from a development perspective, looking at poverty reduction. Why have some been able to reduce poverty when they are developed or not? Focus on economic development, social programs etc. - Over the last 20 years, many countries becoming democratic, there has been increasing focus, maybe on the environment etc. The relationship between the environment and economic development… - There are certain things that are common across the global south, key to the course, based on research on Latin America but is applicable to other countries because some features are also there. The State - The State is interpolitical communities which people are able to organize power, monopolize the use of force in a legitimate way in a ___ territory. Is the only possible way today to organize societies? Territories, which have a population and this way, organize society in a legitimate way. - Basic definition of the State: States have a territory, a population, sovereignty, and have legitimacy - States have 3 main capacities: extractive- taxes, even if you don’t want to pay them you have to. This is the ability to extract resources from society to allow society to function if necessary through the courts (forcing them, income tax….). The ability to penetrate society, the penetrative capacity, the ability of the state to have access to all physical and social spaces. E.g. domestic violence, the state has the right to go into your home to stop that, even in your household. This is a rule of law, when the state passes law and makes policy, it should be able to implement it. - The extent to which states are able to preform these functions without outside intervention is called state autonomy. State autonomy refers to the ability of states to make policy and implement it independently from international or __ opposition. Taxation- forcing people to pay up. It is not concrete, it is fluid and it changes. (Strong state autonomy-US. But they have had weak autonomy at time) For the most part it’s considered to be weaker in the global south. - State Autonomy- The ability of states in the global south to make decisions and implement policies is lower. They are permeated from interests from the outside to stop some of these decisions - There is pressure on these countries to compete for investment for lower taxation. The ability of policy makers on the global south is limited because they have pressure from outside, international actors will put pressure. The international dimension is important. 2. Equality, usually smaller middle classes and smaller ones influence policy more directly and have more contact with policy makers because of state autonomy being weak. 3. Weak state autonomy means those who are marginalized (global south avg 45% population) have limited ability to influence the policy making process. - State capacity- state ability to preform basic functions, in the global south these are weaker. Harder to extract resources from certain areas e.g. rural areas where the state has no control. Afghanistan, trying to build a state, in some areas they are controlled by warlords, therefore the state has no ability to retract resources to function, and extractive capacity is weaker. - Penetrative Capacity- the ability to have access to these areas, domestic violence, most countries have laws against dv, but you need state capacity to control this and have access. - States are weak in their autonomy and capacities - Decisions aren’t made or enacted Institutions - Institutions matter, important to understanding policy in north and south. - Argue: need to look at larger processes of how institutions are established and emerged. Historical institutionalism is helpful in looking at this. - Tend to reflect power relations in society, looking at context is important. Institutions also tend to be weaker and this is because of the historical processes, institutions in the south are weaker- limited resources that have to do with the extractive capacity. Wages are lower and this causes many problems etc. If you can’t pay your staff properly then the ability to carry out what it needs is difficult. Bribing officials. Etc. - Power is centralized usually in the executive branch of government, parliaments aren’t as strong as they could be and decisions are made weakly - Informal institutions- socially shared rules, usually written, not always, but created, communicated and informed outside the officially sanctioned channels. Refers to rules that are somehow enforced collectively and not always written. E.g. Patriarchy- men having different capacities then women and have more power, this is why according to statistics men make 30% more money then women. This translates how we behave which translates into politics. Percentage of Canadian female Parlitarians- 18.5% - Patron-Clientelism: relationship between two individuals of unequal power, the patron and the client, its characterized by an exchange, involves protection or access to certain goods in return for loyalty. Land Owners- patrons, clients- workers. Loyalty is at the core. This has historical roots and comes from anthropology; people behave in a certain way. Pervasive in the global south, its an informal institution and has an impact on policy. E.g. delivery of resources to combat poverty. Governments give out money to the female HOH, 100$ month from government if you are going to take your kid to school and medical check ups, this distribution of goods expects loyalty o How does patron-clientelism play out in the political world? It is depending on one person for goods, it plays out Lecture 4- Thursday January 23, 2013 Lecture 4 Part one, Tuesday January 21, 2013, cancelled. Institutions and Bureaucracies in Policy Making - The reading on Pakistan shows how the patron-clientelism and informal institutions works - When we talk about institutions, informality is important on the global south, it has many effects on policy and politics. - Contemporary example: global south- bright industrialist people that go and study abroad, England, Harvard, Yale… politics advisor and minister of finance, but especially for Latin America, when a person comes back, they will come back and recruit the people they have met in grad school. And the important part here is the important of loyalty. - Characteristics of the global south- measurement of equality, the higher the efficient the higher equality you have Canada: 32, US: 40, Global south: 45. Compare the global south and global north, the equality of the global south is a lot wider, we have to take into account equality when studying policy in the global south because if there’s inequality it can affect the access people have to things, patron-client relationships being exploited, less resources, pluralist perspective, those with more resources can impact policy greater then others without and this is corrosive to the levels of equality. - How issues are framed and who has the power to frame issues and debates: e.g. the debates over poverty, whether poverty is a result of structures or of individual responsibility. If those in power have the ability to frame poverty as an issue of individual responsibility, once you frame this issue, then it affects how the policy will be developed and how you will tackle these problems and target groups, and they are targeting those who are living in extreme poverty and this creates targeted instead of universal - 62% of Canadians believe aboriginals are poor because it’s their own fault and it’s not the structure as an issue. - Talking about Institutions and concentrating on the executive branch of government, the legislative and the bureaucracy The Executive - Branch of government that is the most important driver of policy - The role that it plays depends on the parliamentary and presidential systems, Democracies in the global south represents both systems. - Concentrated power in the hands of the president a lot more then in the ___. What explains this, we have a system of checks and balances, the more power you have in the executive the less power you have in the legislature. - Even in an established democracy, it is really difficult to have control over the military; the military’s in the developing world are very autonomous. The Legislature - When executives are strong, legislatures are weak. Reasons they are weak- tend to have limited resources to counteract the power of the presidents? It has to do with research and the generation of expertise. - They have to represent the interest of rural areas, in most countries; rural votes count more then urban votes? This results in overrepresentation of rural interest in congress. Then members of congress and parliament tend to be interested in the royal elites. - Legislatures, happens all over but in countries in the global south, members of congress are seen as a way of distributing resources when it comes to budges especially, when members of congress want to get as much out of the budges as they can, but in the developing world, we have patron-clientelistic systems and this renders the ability of members of congress to keep in check Bureaucracy - Civil Service: integral part of policy making when it comes to the generation of ideas and the implementation of policies - The production and generation of data: the information that they are able to present to policy makers, when something is perceived as a problem you need information first to deal with the problem. - In terms of decision-making and formulation you need insulation from other branches of government and from society, what you need to insulate people from the outside is: operational resources, good salaries, and in certain areas you need job security, so that the decisions that bureaucrats make are not influenced by outside pressure and cause corruption o Judges having tenure, having the jobs for life, the ability to insulate them from political considerations - In the global south lots of civil servants are appointed - Military complex has lots of power and able to influence bureaucrats - Resources- what you have is in when someone comes to power you bring people with you who you know. Resources have been a big problem in the last 20 years, looking at it in a larger context, - Weak bureaucracies whose resources and expertise have been cut - Implementation- bureaucracy in charge of implementing, think about is implementation differs depending upon policy area and so bureaucracies tend to be permeated and function differently depending on the areas. Global south areas, the ability of society to influence the implementation of policy tends to take several forms: the influence of people on street bureaucrats, costs, bribing etc. The influence of money to accelerate the implementation. The other is large scale corruption: people with resources are able to buy out civil servants and its important not to generalize and it varies but this has to do with low salaries. It is easier to bribe someone when their salaries are low and low resources and salaries foster corruption. And last, patron-clientalism, here the idea in the article of Pakistan, populating pockets of the bureaucracy. When you had a reduction of the size of the state, and the inclusion of groups into the bureaucracy and state to populate those areas, a mechanism also of controlling societies that are highly divided among religious, ethnic and ___ ones. Certain units are distributed based on ethnic lines for the distribution of resources and goods to maintain some sort of stability. This obstructs the implementation of policy! - You also have a larger scale corruption that’s a big problem, e.g. if you have a truck crossing the border with cocaine, they will pay off the guard to let the ‘big red truck pass’ - Corruption: the use of public money for private gain. Patron-Clientalism- is loyalty, the ability to have control of people to distribute resources e.g. if you are a civil servant who is responsible for distributing money to the poor, you - India and global south- creating mechanisms to give people identities so they can get their money and this is done to bypass the patron-clientalism ways. Lecture 5- Tuesday, January 23, 2013 - How can we relate the article read in class with what we are learning in class? o The policy cycle o In the article we have two competing visions, the government and the pressures on the government to have them look into getting guns o Those who advocate for looking at it as a public health issue, the NRA arguing it through a rights based issue- we have a right to guns and the other arguing this is a public health issue and thus framing it as a public health issue and researching based on this, some people are able to win arguments in framed in certain ways, as a public health issue. o The need from other state forces and non-state forces - 80% of the worlds population thinks democracy is the best system of government - How is it that the majority of the worlds population lives in countries underdeveloped, and some were able to achieve high levels of development - The Development State - In the 1980’s a dramatic change, the ascendency of the idea that the state should be limited to simply regulating the market, the arrival of free market delivery’s, the beginning of the debate as to what the role of the state should be in economic activity. Based on the notion that the market allocated resources more efficiently and need to let the market work its wonders and we have an economic pentagon and the changes were dramatic. - Have to let the market work as freely by liberalizing prices, let prices reflect supply and demand e.g. cannot sell certain things at high prices, this is removed. In a freer system trade agreements are implemented, reduction of tariffs etc. All these policies that are known as neo-liberalism. This went a step further in countries of the global south: in the north the argument was: the reason these countries were underdeveloped was because they were too big, too bloated and too inefficient and they needed to reduce the size of the state. But in the early 1990’s in the decade of shrinking of the state, slashing budgets, health care etc., cuts after cuts, started to emerge a picture of uneven development and realization that some countries have actually started to develop, and now a complex generous way of targeting the intervention of the state in fueling development - The idea you need long term rationality and long term goals - Characteristics of the Developmental State - Is a state that is actively participating in economic development, doesn’t let market forces function on their own - Based on both Japanese and Korean: successful: commitment to private property, a commitment to markets (the way to pursue economic development), the idea is industrialization and industrial development is key. Continuity of economic development and this across time, committed to this idea. This requires countries to pure economic liberalism, the idea you cant base the entre economy on economic advantage. If your good at producing bananas you cant only produce bananas. If you just export bananas and you’ll be fine is not a good idea, you need to industrialize. Need the ability of those who believe in this strategy to gain ground and have a strategy, must have a strong state need State Autonomy, A state to make a decision to industrialize and not be influenced by outside non-state actors. - You need state autonomy that has been accomplished through a variety of mechanisms: o You have to weaken the military. (Pakistan article), because they can use force, (in Egypt right now, the military in the global south runs big chunks of the economies) the industrial military complex is huge and the this might not be the most efficient allocation of resources because the military likes their weapons and guns and want this stuff and its not efficient to be spending money on this so must weaken them. Make the military only focus on the roles its supposed to play and not take an active role in economic policy making o Need weakening of non-state actors and the big conglomerates. The big business groups need to be weakened and taken from control, weakening these sectors o Land owners and rural areas have lots of power but you want to industrialize and not have them in power, you need the elites and these areas not as strong because its difficult to get industrial policies going when you have the direct influence of these people - Another characteristic: Establishment of bureaucratic units who have total control, o You have to install mechanisms to guarantee insulation and in many cases you have jobs able to operate without that outside political influence, the idea that your appointed and no one will be able to remove you o Allow a particular form in intervention of the state, these highly qualified individuals have come out with policies which are characterized by selective intervention, and striking a balance between state and society o Establishment or fostering the links between state market players who are institutionalized and somewhat respected. Consultation is constant, bringing people together in a corporatist way, collaboration and consultation. Cooperation in a way that is somewhat transparent to prevent the influence of the private sector and change policy agendas, which is important in industrialization. This is done through fostering inter-elite cross penetration, this helps reaches a consensus over industrial policy - Tensions between Autonomy and Accountability - The executive reins where the bureaucracy rules - The role of students playing in civil society, jobs well paid, but when you get in you have job security for life. - Is this possible? Lecture 6- Thursday, January 31, 2013 The Politics of Poverty Reduction Participation and Policy Making - Some countries that have emerged from underdevelopment but others behind, but characteristics of high poverty and inequality - The market is the best way to create wealth and induce economic development, this in the light of the fact that countries of new development used new strategic ways of integrating in the market and a move way that the state should intervene, and now the market will solve all problems Conditional Cash Transfers - How do we deal with poverty? Invest in human capital: education and training. - Clash, the ideas that how much do we include the poor, how much do we include people. For those in civil society, argument was we needed to create instructions that will help the poor be included in consultation processes. And these institutions and the view that they should be top down, need to make a decision on how we implement it, what are the basic features of these programs: target extreme poverty, the debate of universal social services, when to introduce some and not others? Directed to people who are the poorest of poor, indigents vs. poverty, indigents, there are various measurements of poverty and this refers to those who don’t have the basic resources to attain basic needs. This is the difference between the indigents and poor, most of the policies target those who are in extreme poverty. The idea is how you determine this? - Informal economy vs. formal: informal- economic activity that falls outside the black market, could be legal or illegal, e.g. of informal market- can have something that is formal but illegal or something legal but informal- drug cartel, selling second hand stuff- garage sale, people selling flowers in the bar- not paying taxes and not getting a receipt and completely outside the informal economy but its legal. In the developing world people selling things on the beach, washing your car on the street etc. Over HALF are informal markets in south? How do you determine who’s poor or not, first thing need to do is go out and actually determine who is in this case, need these programs where the state goes in and finds these people, finds their income and etc. they are very technical ways of finding- if you have dirt in your kitchen you get a check mark etc., if you have 15/20 marks you are considered indigenous poor etc. if you have tiles in your house you do not, you need to look at tangible evidence in peoples lives, and through these mechanisms- very expensive, need to find out and target the poorest of the poor, not expansion of universal programs where everyone gets something, its investing in human capital in the poorest of the poor. - Therefore cutting education is stupid because you sacrifice the new generations, you need healthy, smart people - Idea is long-term development, integrating people in the markets by developing human capital- health care and human capital- specifically this meant directly monthly payments to female hoh on the condition that they send kids to school and take them to regular medical check ups. Why the females? Females more rational and satisfied needs of children. They go to the households every month and require receipts and proof of medical notes etc., and then you get this income. Its not a lot of money but it covers it - Results of this- so good that financial institutions are backing this program, it doesn’t distort the macro economic society, it is turning invisible people into consumers! Beginning of the middle class expansion. There is not consensus be important players about these developments - However, challenges: Challenges to Implementation - This is the global south still, the distribution of the resources tends to be in a clientalistic way, we have street bureaucrats- the people who deliver the services and they systematically engage in clientalism, they have power, the person who decides who is an indigenous poor, has power to decide which families are included in this and get the money. Over the last few years trying to fix this problem with including the right mechanisms to deal with this. o First- legislation that makes administration of these programs very transparent- core of this is
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