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Oct 3.docx

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Political Science
Course Code
POLS 3710
Jordi Diez

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Oct 3 lecture Foucault Reading: - discourse: dialogue, multiple people in society, social dialogue, create a narrative, sets norms, thoughts change over time - medicalization of sexuality – not normal sexualities are perverse, something wrong with them = this is a discourse - idea is a discourse - make a category = discourse which is medicalized - definition of person – create a subject is discourse - church getting people to talk about sexuality deploys power Queer Theory - inspired by Foucault - the dominant approach to study non-traditional sexuality - study of sexuality is fashionable – cultural and humanities - since 1990’s – institutionalization of queer theory - the 2 meanings of queer - conceptually - institutionally - main elements - relational understanding “an identity without an essence” - includes all sexualities - the influence of Judith Butler - gender as a cultural fiction, a performative effect - analytical possibilities - medical categories - challenge to the arbitrary understanding of the sexual world - opens the possibilities of new histories - political implications - queer theory and politics - criticisms the 2 meanings of queer - conceptually: - clear at what queer theory is not about - less clear about what it is about - between sex, gender and sexual desire - about amplifying the 3 elements of heteronormativitiy ^ - focus on those incoherence’s of elements - focus on mismatches of elements - demonstrate possibility of naturality - idea socially construct - what is supposed to be natural - examines unnatural elements/relationships - Institutionally: - latest phase of gay/lesbian studies - has accomplished a lot more – ie. Perverts Oct 3 lecture - not limited to gay and lesbian - incorporate sexual indecency - new phase - all those that don’t fit/try to challenge heteronormativity - genderism, transvestite, sex change etc. - tried to overcome 3 elements gay/lesbian studies lacked: 1) ideal types – ideal gay, ideal lesbian – white middle-class, excluded those who didn’t belong to those ideal types, feminine or masculine 2) development of identity – create identity to fight for rights, but excluded many identities. Intersectionality: overlapping of identities. 3) historical - Because you are gay you have to develop certain characteristics and these don’t change over time. Nonwestern societies may have different ideas. Identities are given – social constructed - emerges in an attempt to over come these - broader way of studying - area of study (very big in US) main elements - queer in English refers to something that is “odd”, different - queer is doesn’t refer to a being, but is relational - stands as an undefined term - gets its’ meaning because it’s not – its outside the norm however its defined - whatever is queer is what that doesn’t fit - you are what the norm is not - identity without an essence - it is what is not - outside the norm - whatever falls outside heteronormativity (this does change over time) - doesn’t conform - “queer” will constantly change - allows more freedom for sexual identity - embrace reliance on multiple identities - incorporates post-structuralism – difficulties in describing essence - all about what not essence is - social construction - reflects broader changes - post-modernism - queer – most associated with gay and lesbian topics - cross dressing, gender corrective surgery, transvestite, etc Judith Butler’s influence - analytical approach - discipline - study of sexuality, identity, behaviour that don’t fall in heteronormativity - about social constructionism - most important figure in development of queer theory Oct 3 lecture - writing difficult (criticism) - women – not actually a natural unity, being, but rather a regulatory fiction - accidentally deploys heteronormativitiy - deployment as a regulated social construct – produces norm between sex, gender and sexual desire which in turn normalize heteronormativitiy - “a woman is not born, but it is made” - women become women – ie. Everything pink - deconstruct gender - don’t normalize homosexual relations – must deconstruct beyond gender and look at a woman as a social construct – what is a woman - woman become a fiction through preformativitity, perform - gender is a cultural fiction that makes a woman a result of the perfromative effects of constant movements and actions that reiterate each other – constant stylization of the body – what it is to be a women – it is a performance - through constant action - perform constant actions – give style to body – creates gender – through constant actions and movements - places emphasis on how gender is made through discourse - actions have power - types of authoritative speech – power - actions have power – send messages and are reinforced by society – laws and norms - repetition of certain actions style a norm - need to be consistent to have power - heterosexuality is a cultural fiction – it is performed - seen as something natural without need for explanation - perform identity and sexuality - gender is a practice which can be questioned and challenged - act that needs to be rehearsed - make script a reality through repetition - need to act your part - perform role of being straight or being gay – it is a performance - performance of gender identity - tool of political strategy – challenging the norm analytical possibilities - identities are social constructs - hegemonic – dominant - development of variet
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