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POLS 3710 (15)
Jordi Diez (15)

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Political Science
POLS 3710
Jordi Diez

Oct 24 notes Identity Politics and the Politics of Recognition - what is identity politics? - identity, inclusion and citizenship - the meaning of citizenship - Iris Young’s concept of ‘differential citizenship’ - inclusive Understandings of human development - sexual citizenship - 3 types of sexual rights - Isaiah Berlin’s concept of negative & positive rights - the evolution of identity politics - context - 2 -wave feminism - gay and lesbian mobilization - identity politics and transition Identity Politics - rise of movements gave rise to literature - trying to explain emergence of movements - idea of an identity – different from other movements - new social movements – involve class, collective identities - developed through social organization and mobilization - talking about objectives/strategies to become a collective identity - struggles against oppression - citizenship – who belongs? Who has right to exercise rights? - creates categories - mobilize around collective identities - bring about change - mode of organization, intimately connected that some social groups are oppressed - makes one vulnerable to cultural domination - makes who you are, oppressed – racial profiling - identity = group membership, belonging - also about what has excluded you, and turning into the driving force * self through consciousness raising - one of the most marginalized – transgendered people - only live til 33 (average) - Argentina – demedicalized, decriminalized gender - consciousness raising - build a community - followed what women, African American and gay/lesbian have done - realized they all had similar situations/needs/experiences - realized collectiveness - gay/lesbian different than black – because they are oppressed at the home as well – no output or support in private life - group formation, share experiences, needs, desires - variety of numerous groups - creation of subjects Oct 24 notes - new entity seeking rights  becomes a subject - before was invisible - based on characteristics based in the past the oppress them - demand for respect as one for being different - criticisms: 1) push of demanding rights based on collective identity, urges people to mobilize around 1 axes, identify self with those characteristics – their defining feature and how they will interact with society - applies pressure to identify self with the identifying features - concept of intersectionality - overlapping of identities people have - come from queer theory - we can develop multiple identities 2) has a disciplinary effect – in order to gain some rights you have to enhance those traits that have formed the basis for your exclusion, but those will discipline you as an individual - becomes repetitive - also dictating them self understanding of how they should be - may inhibit autonomy - replacement of one tyranny with another - those who don’t conform to group are marginalized Identity, Inclusion and Citizenship - new forms of belonging - citizenship = rights - citizenship = belonging, membership in a group then comes rights & responsibilities - who belongs, who doesn’t? - core of political science - North America – if born on soil, you are a citizen - Europe – who you are related to, not until you are 18 - core of identity politics – its about rights, new type of membership into a society - relationship between individuals and state - Iris Young - differentiated citizenship: some people can only be fully citizens/integrated into society if their differences are taken into account - equality only guaranteed through the affirmation of group - distinctive needs - state has responsibility to take actions to encourage mechanisms of group representation and adopt group differentiation policies - ie. Need a certain number of women in your workplace – assign quotas based on those characteristics/traits to ensure they are included - criticisms: - idea of differentiated group rights violates principle of equality – which is the core of democracy - arbitrary, no objective way to determines which groups are deserving - leads to mistrust Oct 24 notes - inclusive development – include people by lifting ‘unfreedoms’ so they can freely participate in society - state has responsibility to intervene directly in lifting these unfreedoms Sexual Citizenship - recognition of alternative forms of sexuality and being legitimate - state sanctioning of alternative sexuality - expansion of rights - in order to participate equally in polity - sexual rights - theorization of rights - scholars theorize - jurice prudence – court rulings support - 3 main levels: 1) practice - right to practice - forms of sexual expression - impersonal relationships - right to be able to practice ones sexuality 2) expression - self-expression - development of identities - right to express ones right freely - public space - gay pride 3) relationship - most recent - rights to recognition of relationships that aren’t heteronormative - reform of institutions such as marriage - gay marriage - challenge heteronormativity, challenge to norms - Berlin’s – “two concepts of liberty” - negative and positive freedoms - positive – when state extends a right to you (gay marriage) - negative – righ
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