POLS 1500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Public Culture, Harold Lasswell, High Culture

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Politics
The modern state:
Countries that do not exist as a state: Tibet, Taiwan,
The merging of political and religious state the last caliphate is the (ottoman empire)
What is state and? How do you know a state when you see it? Why do we have states?
Where did states come from? > 3 main developments in early modern Europe: Religious
conflict in Europe > Protestant reformations henry 8th broke away from the Catholic
church > 30 years war > comes to an end with the treaties of Westphalia > recognitions
of internal authority of the German princes “ free exercise of their territorial right as well
as in spirituals and temporalis”
Sovereign equality “ exact and reciprocal equality amongst the electors princes and
states of both religions” birthplace of sovereign
Jean Bodin sovereignty= that absolute and perpetual power vested in a commonwealth
1. Pertains to states not individuals
Third development Mercantilism > economic doctrine that guided European foreign
policy from the 16-18th century
Based on the belief that military power and economic influence were compliments
Imperial conquest > triangle of trade leads to money and wealth for the Europeans
Sovereign states internal authority external sovereignty and internal sovereignty
What is the meaning of sovereignty =
Internal control
External autonomy = non intervention
Based on recognition by other states
Sovereign equality
Anarchy = no authority above the state
What do you need to be a state:
> a) a permanent population
b) A defined territory
c) Government and
d) Capacity to enter
If other states do not recognize an upcoming state then it cannot be a state (recognition
by other states)
Nation: a people who feel themselves part of some large identity group
Limitations of the modern state
Does not always successfully accommodate minority groups who do not identity with
that state >ex tibet, sri lanka
Modern state does not accommodate other forms of political/ social organisation > ex
nomad societies, religious caliphates
Sovereignty is zero sum, so it does not easily accommodate power sharing > ex first
nation groups in Canada
The modern sovereign state cannot adequately address global problems
State versus nations:
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State: a political society that has a government which exercises authority over a territory and
population and that is able to conduct relations
nation : a group of people that sees itself as belonging together in some meaningful
Which came first: the state or the nation?
Nation first : (primordialism)
Nations are ancient and natural elements of human experience
National identity based on deep ties
Symbols and traditions
pre-given , organic character
Spiritual affinity between members
Nation first: perennialism ( seton- watson)
A historic territory
Common myths
Historical memories
A mass public culture
Public economy
Modernism (state first):
(gellner) nationalism is only possible under certain conditions, like having a leader, sports
teams, education, music, culture , need to have these things in order to feel like you a part of
the nation and the state needs to provide this in order to become a state
Shift from agrarian to industrial society
Centralised economy
Taxation
Imperial conquests
State education
High culture
Imagined community state first (Benedict - Anderson)
Declined of religion (nation replaces the spiritual community)
Rise of print capitalism > books and newspapers > common language and culture >
common history
“Creole states in the new world : new world colonies that shared a land and descent
with those against whom they fought
Social identity theory: in group part of the community > out group part of something else
States + nations = nation state (national, bi national or multi -national)
Nationalism :
Civic nationalism
Ethnic nationalism
Hyper- nationalism (left wing or right wing)
Birth - place based nationalism
Anti- colonial nationalism
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