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Lecture 24

POLS 2200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 24: Gulf War, Mohammed Ayoob, Neoclassical Realism

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2200
Janine Clark

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State system
- State populated unambiguous bordered territory governed by a single political body
Sovereign recognized internally and externally
Mutual sovereignty avoids conflict
Monopoly on authority engage war
Legitimacy public support
- Pre-modern empires states
Constant expansion
Lack of sovereignty leaders appointed by God
Internal communication no public involvement in gov.
- First state peace of Westphalia
Protestant religion/leaders given recognition resulting in British state system
- First hegemony Britain
Globalization = colonialism
Eastern influence after WWII
- Types of states
Juridical legal institution
Empirical political/economic organization
Quasi juridical
Upset power balance
Classical realism self-iteest > alliae e. “pata ouldt help Melos agaist Athes eause Melos as isigifiat
- Athens exert power every chance you get to strike fear in others and fill the power vacuum
- Thucydides and Melian power inequality
Justice adapt to your relative power reality
Final arbitrator war
- Hobbes domestic laws internationally
Must rely on self-help use your own resources
Do whatever it takes to protect national security using high politics military and strategy
Power willingness to exercise
- Material hats at the states disposal
- Relative compared to others = never ending conflict
- Power vacuum stagnant power waiting to be consumed
Fear the unknown ex. Syrian leader Mubarik was much worse than his predecessor Assad
- Hans Morgenthau
Power is a political responsibility, goal, guide, and paramount interest of the state
Balance = international peace
1. Society is governed by objective laws of human nature i.e. selfish and power hungry
Politics predicting the actions of other states
2. Interest = power is universally valid
3. International ethics private morality and state morality
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4. IR = dealing with immoral political action
Strategic realism Schelling
- Analyzes the effectiveness of foreign policy (scientific approach) while using coercion
- Game theory rationally optimize strategy against competition
Operate within anarchy and capture the security dilemma
- Security dilemma states act defensively because every action is seen as a threat ex. Stag Hunt
Selfish absolute gains
Group effort relative gains and basis for future collaboration based on a common interest
- Prisoners dilemma incriminate partner v. staying silent
Cooperation offers a better reward ex. Cold War neither party builds a nuclear arsenal
Neo-realism Waltz
- Analyzes the structure of states and distribution of military power (normative approach)
- International change great states rise and fall weak states react ex. alliance or bandwagon
Why Iran should get the bomb bipolarity restores stability to Iran (rational uses it for protection) and
Nuclear weapons military deterrent i.e. causes the parties to oe to a ageeet ad dot
share the capabilities with third parties who are unmanageable ex. terrorist groups
Polarity stability
- Bipolarity stable due to a balance of power
- Multi-polarity uncertainty creates stability
More powers = less stability
- Uni-polarity unstable
Power balance
- Does IR create a balance?
Volunteerism result of the system is balance because every action (perceived as a threat) is cancelled out
by a counter-action ex. billiard ball analogy
- Which polarity is most stable?
- How much power allows a state to feel secure?
Offensive Mearscheimer maximize relative power to guarantee survival
Offensive cooperation relative power from temporary alliance
Defensive Waltz excess power is counter-productive
Synder anarchy punishes aggression
Structural modifiers non-state actors that help determine power ex. World Bank
- How to incorporate the black box?
Balance of threat Waltz states balance against the most threatening states or bandwagon
Neo-classical realism Rose states craft influence of foreign policy and relative power distribution
Liberal realist Nye power components
- Hard military and economy
- Soft cultural dimensions define state identity
Make people like your state ex. Chinese opinion peace in the Globe and Mail to promote a trade agreement
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Terrorism influences foreign policy
- Cat attak dietl like a state – targeting a state = blow back terrorism i.e. more violence
Role of government smaller the better
- Laissez faire gov. arbitrates civil disputes to ensure individual rights are upheld
- Second treatise of gov. Locke equality and ensure liberty ability to pursue livelihood without interference
from others
- Free trade and invisible hand Smith
- Comparative advantage Ricardo
- Woes ights – Mill
Decreasing the likelihood of war Kant
- Harmony among individuals = harmony among nations
- War teaches people how to avoid future conflict
- Majority of people go to war for self defense
- Free trade deterrent to conflict Cobden
War interrupts trade
Contract expands relationships and understanding
- Democratic capitalism deterrent to conflict Schumpeter
War destroys capital
Sociological liberalism Deutsch transnational relations
- Security community group of people who have become integrated
- Naim micro powers ex. bloggers challenge macro powers ex. gov.
1. More revolution longer lifespans
2. Mobility revolution no borders
3. Mentality revolution middle class skeptical
Interdependence liberalism Mitrany and Haas people are indirectly affected
- Functionalism technical ties have too much benefit to destroy
- Integration occurs when political elites create a positive sum outcome from a common interest ex. free trade
Neoliberalism Nye and Koehane power elements in transnational ties
- Complex interdependence
- Power high = low politics
- Itl ogaizatios hae eoe ieasigl ipotat
- Weak states dot ifluee I‘
Institutional liberalism regimes
- International regimes agreed rules within a certain region ex. diplomatic immunity
- Formal UN
- Informal culture
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