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Lecture 8

POLS 2200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Inside Out Music, Complex Interdependence, Ernst Haas


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2200
Professor
Cindy Clarke
Lecture
8

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POLS2200 International Relations 10/04/16
Liberalism, Interdependence and Global Governance: Explaining Cooperation
How does Liberalism differ from Realism in terms of its actors, assumptions and
focus/questions?
1. States and multiple kinds of non-state actors are the key actors in liberalism
For non-state actors to be important to liberals, they need to have ties across borders
What kind of ties? Trade, alliance, ideological, modern communications (social media, etc.)
Examples: UN, NGOs, non-profits, EU, religious organizations, terrorist groups
2. Rather than billiard balls, we have a world that looks like a cobweb
Not clean and defined with clear states like billiard balls
Advantages: shows interconnectedness in the world, interdependence
Main question is about cooperation and relationships, not war
They see a very peaceful world around them
3. Rather than states as black boxes, liberals look inside the black box
Cat look iside the illiard all
Open the black box to see the other non-state actors (like religious organizations, terrorist
groups)
4. Rather than a top-down view (neo-realism) that focuses on the deterministic characteristics of the
iteratioal sste, e hae a iside-out ie that eaies ho fators at the state-society level
and/or the individual level of analysis affect international relations and outcomes
The syste doest deterie aythig, is ot really iportat to Lierals
Not iportat hat the states are doig, its the ties etee states
5. Rather than distinguishing between domestic and international politics, most liberals see international
politics as an extension of domestic politics
Realists see domestic and international politics as separate, and should not be considered
together, because IR is governed by anarchy (follow different rules)
Liberals do not see this distinction the distinction is blurred (think cobweb)
Dot see aarhy as a ery profoud oept
6. Rather than questions about power and balance of power, the key analytical task is to discover under
what conditions international collaboration, even peace, might be achieved
Much more positive view of human nature than the view of realists
o Ultimately, humans are rational and will seek peace
A minimalist state there to protect the freedoms of the people, people need to be allowed as
much liberty as possible
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POLS2200 International Relations 10/04/16
7. Rather than relative gains and a zero-sum outcome, we have a positive-sum perspective the size of
the pie a e ireased
Strategic realists focused on gains relative to what other states have
Liberals see everything as a positive gain not constant competition
8. Rather than a hierarchy of high (military-security) and low politics, economic, environmental and
social issues also matter
Liberals see all social issues as equally important
Why is the hierarchy gone with Liberals? All ties connect things question of connectivity that
binds the world together and makes everyone dependent on each other
o Spillover effect doest atter ho triial the tie is, they all hae spilloer effet that
can help make lasting peace
9. Rather than building grand theory, the liberal approach to theory can be characterized as building
separate islads of theor – each explaining some things but not others with the long-term goal of
connecting them together within a more general theory of IR
Far greater number of smaller theories, less concerned with giant, overarching theories like
Realists
Intellectual Roots of Liberalism
Classical liberal thought believes that human nature is essentially positive and that the state
should play a minimal role i peoples lies
o Belief in laissez-faire the state should act as an arbiter in disputes between individuals
in order to ensure conditions under which individuals can enjoy their rights to the fullest
(to be free, left alone, state out of the economy)
o Emphasis on the individual and on a limited state people and markets should be
deteriig hats goig o as uh as possile
Exemplified by writings of John Locke (Second Treatise on Government, 1689)
o Human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance
Very different from early Realist thinkers
o In state of nature all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural
right to defed his Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessios
o The sole right to defend in the state of nature was not enough, so people established a
civil society to resolve conflicts in a civil way with help from government in a state of
society
o The state exists to ensure the liberty of citizens and enable them to live their lives and
pursue happiness without undue interference from other people
Classical liberalism also reflected in 18th century works of Adam Smith (free trade and invisible
hand of the market supply and demand fluctuates on its own, and it is a good thing as it
regulates itself) and David Ricardo (free trade and law of comparative advantage every state
should fous o hat theyre est at ad freely trade the) in economics who argued the
important role of entrepreneurs who should be unconstrained by a minimalist state
o When governments get involved, things get skewed
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POLS2200 International Relations 10/04/16
o Everything should be allowed to regulate themselves
Also reflected in 19th century work of John Stuart Mill (political philosopher), On Liberty
o Liberty is the value of individuals to have control over their own actions (agency)
Bringing the Liberal View of Domestic Politics into the International Realm
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
What did Immanuel Kant argue?
o Just as there can be a harmony of interests among individuals, there can be a harmony
of interests among states
o The intellectual roots to the democratic peace theory
o Anarchy and wars will lead humans to learn ways to avoid future wars
o Human beings use reason and are concerned with self-preservation and self-
improvement majority of people would only go to war in self-defense
o The best way to ensure peace is to encourage the growth of republics that manifest the
popular will (liberal democracies)
Representative democracies (republics) are essential to securing internal peace and realizing
justice in society
o As the number of republics grows, the world moves closer to perpetual peace
o Advocated a federation among representative democracies as a means to peace
o A federation of republics (representative democracies) would be inclined toward peace
and more likely to take international law seriously than monarchies or empires
Richard Cobden (1804-1865)
Whereas Kant made connection between democracy and peace, Cobden made three important
claims regarding free trade and peace:
1. Most wars fought to achieve mercantilist goals/commercial rivalry therefore free trade
would be a more effective and peaceful means to achieve national wealth
2. Even in cases where wars arise for other reasons, if there were free trade, states would be
less inclined to resort to war because of the losses they would sustain (war would interrupt
trade) vested interests
3. With an expansion of free trade, there would be an expansion of contact and
communication among peoples and this would encourage international friendship and
understanding
More trade leads to more peace war can be economically bad for states
Joseph Schumpeter (1883-1950)
Brigs Kats elief poer of deoray ad Codes elief i poer of free trade for peae
o Argues that war hurts capitalism (even if there is short-term gain for some)
o Capitalists have an interest in protecting and expanding capital (the productive capacity
of economies), not destroying it
o Capitalism and commercial values therefore support peace
o Democratic capitalism leads to peace
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