Criticized classical organization theory for emphasis on structure, and started to move more towards emphasis on the employee. Looked at the group as opposed to the individual because he said it was important for. Instead he focused on the importance of cooperation within organizations productivity for a group to work together. Placed an importance on morality and leadership. Said incentives are needed to motivate the employees, or they will leave the organization. Sufficient rewards are important to get people to work hard enough. Esprit de corps bureaucrats defend their own interests: they are supposed to defend the political decisions of their bureaucratic masters, but they may think they know best and fight against the people in power. His work was a response to both fayol and gulick & urwick. He not only criticized classical theory he attacked it. No ge(cid:374)eral (cid:862)pri(cid:374)ciples of (cid:373)a(cid:374)age(cid:373)e(cid:374)t(cid:863) he said these were inconsistent, conflicting and inapplicable.