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Lecture

POLS 2250 Lecture Notes - Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, Hawthorne Effect


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2250
Professor
Tim Mau

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JANUARY 25, 2013 POLS2250 T.MAU
Hawthorne Experiments (1924-1930)
- Frederick Roethlisberger and Elton Mayo
- Most important contribution to human relations school
- No ‘one best way to work’ – studied impact of environmental changes
(lightning, humidity, temperature in the workplace) on worker productivity
- Hawthorne Effect employees respond favourably when they believe people
were trying to help them
- What can we conclude from this?
o Levels of production is set by social norms
o Importance of non-economic rewards/sanctions (many other things
like psychic awards have someone who believes he or she deserves
a raise and goes into boss’ office asks for raise boss cannot give but
offers them the role of director rather than senior manager some
people want praise or for their peers to see they are doing a good job.)
o Workers often act of react as members of groups
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
- people are motivated by more than monetary awards
- developed a theory of motivation based on 5 needs
o physiological food, clothing, shelter, sex
o safety free from physical and emotional harm
o love/belonging affection and relations with others
o esteem self-esteem and esteem of others
o self-actualization reach potential
- hierarchy is not fixed
- needs to not have to completely satisfied do not need to be 100% satisfied
to move from one level to the next
- needs may be on an unconscious level
- not all behaviour is determined by basic needs
Douglas McGregor
- “Theory X
o conventional conception of management
o individuals are fundamentally lazy
o dislike responsibility and prefer to be led
o gullible, not very bright
- “Theory Y”
o work is natural as play or rest
o control and punishment not only way to motivate
o humans also seek responsibility
o people are imaginative and creative
- he used the work of Maslow once the person’s physiological needs were
met, then you could focus on something else
- believed if people did not have these opportunities of higher levels of
motivation achieved, they would ultimately be deprived and would not work
as effectively as otherwise would

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JANUARY 25, 2013 POLS2250 T.MAU
- if managers treated people as though they were lazy and wanted to be led,
that’s exactly the employee they would get in return
- vice versa for the theory Y approach
Criticisms of Human Relations
- school was criticized from both sides
- human relations school ultimately built on this notion that there could be a
perfect balance between organizations needs and workers needs but
management was blamed for not seeking these harmony
- provide employees with real decision-making authority
- Peter Drucker
o Key contributor
o Hierarchy and specialization problematic
o Communication and decentralized decision-making
o key benefits
o criticisms
o management needed to promote communication in the organization
Organizational Development (OD)
- bring people, structures, and technology into harmony
- planned, goal-oriented change
- 1) unfreezing, 2) changing, 3) refreezing
- involves a four-step process: diagnosis; strategic planning; education;
evaluation
- key premises:
o personal growth arises from honest, caring, non-manipulative
relationships
o positive change if group feels a common identity
o people more likely to change if understand reasons and ways to
achieve it
o participation in decision-making increase co-operation
o increased participation satisfaction and satisfaction = increased
work effort
NEO-CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY
GAINED PROMINENCE IN MID-1940s TO 1950s
BUT NEVER REPLACED CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY
CRITICISED CLASSICAL THEORISTS FOR EMPHASIS ON STRUCTURE
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JANUARY 25, 2013 POLS2250 T.MAU
KEY THEORISTS: CHESTER BARNARD, ROBERT MERTON, HERBERT SIMON,
PHILIP SELZNICK
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