Policies take into account these policy sub-systems (meta-institutions, history, players, political systems: pluralists think a lot about the players and how they come into the system two page overview likely ideology that identifies our groups perspective. Liberalism: focus on personal rights, belief in small government and individual responsibility. Supportive of market as a means of controlling everything (resources, distribution etc. ), liberty is the most important value, one should not be constrained by too much government. (ex. employment is an individual responsibility, unemployment is the individuals fault) Socialism: focus on group rights (collective), belief in equality, and freedom from being exploited, the state plays a significant role in maintaining well- being. Pluralism: see competing interest of multiple groups coming together. Deductive: start with idea of how we think it works and than test this by doing empirical research. Policy cycle: not perfect because policy doesn"t happen this rationally.