POPM 4040 Lecture 16: POPM 4040 Lecture : Viral foodborne infections

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Importance of domestic foodborne transmission varies 30% norovirus, 7% hepatitis a, 1% others. Viruses can only replicate in living cells. Reservoir human feces, occasionally vomitus (norovirus) Resistant to acidity i. e. stomach acid. Mostly rna viruses small (25-30 nm vs up to 250 nm) non-enveloped and stable in feces. Norovirus (aka norwalk or norwalk-like virus) many strains. Vegetables and fruit irrigated with fecal- contaminated water: infected food handlers. Among 816 outbreaks involving handlers norovirus most common agent hepatitis. Difficult to detect in food because often low levels, can"t be enriched in lab. Survives prolonged periods in environment (including freezing), low ph, moderate resistance to chlorine (killed by typical concentrations used for drinking water treatment) and 60 c for 30 min. 3/5 genogroups of norovirus are human pathogens. Numerous genotypes large genetic variability; little cross-protection. Incubation 12 to 48 hours (mean: 36 hrs) Clinical signs nausea vomiting (more often children) diarrhea (more often adults) anorexia low grade fever, aches, chills, malaise.

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