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PSYCH 1000.docx

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PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Module 1 Breakdown History: 2 – 6 Nature/ Nurture: 6-7 Levels of Analysis/Perspectives 8-9 Subfields: 10-11 Close-Up (Improve you retention): 12 – 13, useful but not on exam Red Hammer Experiment Implied Hypothesis  The act of doing calculations magically induces thoughts of red hammer Other hypothesis? Note: not necessarily mutually exclusive (one right, one wrong) Typicality Hypothesis  Red is the most common colour, hammer is the most typical tool  Under any circumstances , most people asked the colour/tool will say red/hammer Don’t think too much hypothesis  Given a chance to think about it, person might deliberately to avoid saying the first colour/tool that comes to mind  Encouraging speedy decisions on calculations prevents over thinking on colour/tool decision Norm hypothesis  Preceding colour/tool question with norm information (98% of people say same thing) causes people to ask: “What would others say?”  Might influence someone’s decision How do you test these hypotheses?  Remove the numbers or change them around  Red is a primary colour, what we learn first as a child. But that’s only in Canada so you can might take the experiment to different cultures or countries (environment)  The wording of the instructions and the speed of how the questions and answers were shown What is psychology?  The science of behaviour and mental processes.  Behaviour: directly observable to others (e.g. expressions, movements, physiological)  Mental processes: internal experiences that can be oberserved via inference (feelings, perceptions, thoughts) History  Philosophy  Behaviourism - the science of  Psychological science behaviour  Structuralism  Freudian psychology  Functionalism  Humanistic psychology  Natural selection  Cognitive psychology The big issue in psychology N – N The Nature-nurture question:  To what extend are our traits already set in place at birth (Our nature)  And to what extent do our traits develop in response to our environment/ experience (our nurture) September 17, 2012 Module 2 (Thinking critically with psychological science) Book topics :  Science vs. Intuition  Critical thinking Common sense is not sufficient to understand & predict behaviour and Scientific method is necessary to understand & predict behaviour Intuitive/Folk Psychology  Psychology = common sense  Layperson has years of experience observing others’ behaviour and own mental states  Why study scientifically? o Compare with intuitive physics o Physics question: you are whirling a ball attached to a string around your head. If the string is cut, what path will the ball take? Intuitive Vs. Actual answer  Intuition: path = curved  Answer: path = straight line perpendicular to string o Throwing a bomb down from a jet, when do you throw it?  Intuition: right when you’re above it  Answer: in advance of target Intuitive physics  Intuitions about motion are incorrect despite years of experience with moving objects o Not until Galileo began conducting experiments did the principles of motion became clear  Counterintuitive findings from psychological science o Examples: facial attractiveness  What are your intuitions about what makes a face attractive/unattractive?  Intuition: distinctive faces are attractive  Science: average faces are attractive  Intuition: individuals consistent over time  Science: inconsistent (e.g. hormonal state/ ovulating)  When women are ovulating, on the hunt for a muscular and masculine man with fine bone structure Critical thinking pg 20  Under-representation of women in science, engineering and mathematics  Important Issues o Example: 2005 Harvard president Lawrence summers: fewer females have “innate ability” in these fields. Said don’t have the ability to succeed in the field 1. Accurate reporting? a. Innate ability only factor mentioned by summers? NO i. Workaholism less attractive to women ii. Socialization (others steering them) and discrimination b. If not, did he emphasize ability? NO i. (1) Workaholism (2) ability (3) S&D 2. Controversial ≠ Wrong a. Evidence for innateness claim 3. Boys
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