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Lecture 14

Psych lecture 14- Memory.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Lisa Giguere

October 25, 2012 Memory Lecture 14 Persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval (functions) of info & skills (content) Recall: retrieve info previously learned and unconsciously stored Recognition: identify which stimuli match your stored info Relearning: measure of how much less work it takes you to learn info you studied before Key steps to remember - Encode: info gets into brains in a way that allows it to be stored - Store: info held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved - Retrieve: reactivating & recalling info, producing it in form similar to what was encoded Implicit vs. explicit memories - Bypassing the Atkinson-Shiffrin STAGE: Implicit memories: - ones we aren’t fully aware of, thus don’t declare/ talk about Explicit/”declarative” memories: - Facts and experiments we consciously recall - Require attention to encode and recall Encoding: Automatic Processing Go directly to long-term (implicit) memory - Procedural (learning to skate) - Conditioned associations - Info about space, time, frequency Encoding: Effortful Processing Step 1: Sensory memory - Brief recording of sensory info (0.5 s) - Analogous to an echo or image, all sensations we take in (3-4s) Step 2: Short-term/ working memory - Attention> selection of info form sensory mem, sent to short-term working memory Effortful strategies to improve encoding Chunking - Create groups with pieces of info Mnemonics - Creating links - Method of loci Hierarchies - Divide complex info into concepts, then sub concepts Rehearsal and distributed practice - Cramming not effective - Spacing eff
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