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Lecture 16

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Lisa Giguere

Lecture 16 Motivation and Emotions November 1 st 1. What is human motivation? Motivation refers to a need or desire that energizes (effortful) behavior and directs it towards a goal What is an instinct? - a fixed (rigid and predictable) pattern of behavior - not acquired by learning, typically rooted in genes What drives us? - some strong human drives include hunger, sex, belonging - the “push” of biological processes and the “pull” of socio-cultural forces Are we motivated by the maintenance of homeostasis? - a drive is an aroused/ tense state related to a physical need - drive-reduction theory suggests we are motivated to restore homeostasis when a drive emerges Are we motivated by incentives? - an incentive is a reward (reinforcement) - suggests we are motivated by learned response-reward pairings - motivated by attracting person to reward - as opposed to pushing person Are we motivated by exploration? - a need to either increase or decrease our physiological arousal level to maintain an optima level of arousal - as opposed to eliminating arousal Are our needs organized in a sequence? - Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) - Bottom up: physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization Beyond pleasure and paid? - flow: state of experience where a person, total absorbed, feels tremendous amounts of exhilaration, control enjoyment - occurs when people push their abilities to their boundaries and i
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