Motivation and Emotions
1. What is human motivation?
Motivation refers to a need or desire that energizes (effortful) behavior and directs
it towards a goal
What is an instinct?
- a fixed (rigid and predictable) pattern of behavior
- not acquired by learning, typically rooted in genes
What drives us?
- some strong human drives include hunger, sex, belonging
- the “push” of biological processes and the “pull” of socio-cultural forces
Are we motivated by the maintenance of homeostasis?
- a drive is an aroused/ tense state related to a physical need
- drive-reduction theory suggests we are motivated to restore homeostasis
when a drive emerges
Are we motivated by incentives?
- an incentive is a reward (reinforcement)
- suggests we are motivated by learned response-reward pairings
- motivated by attracting person to reward
- as opposed to pushing person
Are we motivated by exploration?
- a need to either increase or decrease our physiological arousal level to
maintain an optima level of arousal
- as opposed to eliminating arousal
Are our needs organized in a sequence?
- Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
- Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
- Bottom up: physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization
Beyond pleasure and paid?
- flow: state of experience where a person, total absorbed, feels tremendous
amounts of exhilaration, control enjoyment
- occurs when people push their abilities to their boundaries and in so doig
experience merging of action and awareness
- flow can occur throughtout spectrum of daily experience ex/ music sports
- mihaly csikszentmihalyi (1934-)
2. What do emotions do?
- A functional perspective suggests emotions are signals to motivation
- Well-suited to help us manage “push” of biological processes and “pull” of