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Lecture 3

Psychology Lecture Three.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Dan Meegan

Psychology Lecture Three September-24-13 5:53 PM Consciousness and Attention: Modules 7, 17, 18  Cognitive Neuroscience: Aims to understand neural basis of the mind -Using imaging machines, vegetative patients have been seen to produce brain activity similar to a normal patient when asked certain questions involving motor imagery (imagining doing certain activities).  Unconscious parallel processing is faster then sequential conscious processing. Sequential Conscious processing is better at solving new problems.  Blind sight: Loss of conscious vision following damage to the visual cortex. Sometimes, these people are able to sense objects in their path.  Selective Attention: Focussing of conscious awareness on specific aspect of stimuli Divided attention: Multitasking.   Inattentional blindness: Consequence of selectively attending to one thing can cause blindness to other things. If someone is focussed intently on a task, they may not notice things unrelated to their task around them. Change blindness: Failing to notice changes in environment Pop-out phenomenon: Such powerful stimuli, it demands attention. Sensation and Perception  Sensation: Sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus  Perception: Organization and interpreting sensory information which allows us to recognize meaningful events  Bottom up processing: Begins with senses and goes up to the interpretation of it  Top down processing: Begins with information processing through mental processes which draws on our experiences.  Subliminal Messages: Subliminal: stimulus so weak or brief that, although received by senses, cannot be perceived consciously. Do subliminal messages affect attitudes or behaviour?  Difference Threshold: For an average person to notice a difference, the two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion. Visual Information Processing: -Face perception occurs separately from object perception  Parallel Processing : Brain divides scene into sub dimensions (colour, motion, form, depth) and works on each aspect simultaneously. Perceptions are then constructed by integrating the separate but parallel work  Colour Sight: Retina has three types of colour receptors which are sensitive to red, green and blue. These receptors can mix to create other colours. Those that are colour blind will only have one or two working colour receptors meaning they cannot see certain colours.  Perceptual Constancy: Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change.  Color Constancy: Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent colour even if changing illumination alters wavelengths. Colour is seen relative to the objects surrounding it. Brightness determined by the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings.  Comparisons govern our perceptions.  Form perception, depth perception, motion perception and perceptual constancies illuminate how we organize visual experiences.  Critical period for sensory and perceptual development in humans and animals. BBC: Is Seeing Believing? Documentary Questions Segments: 1. Magic : o What do people perceive in the vanishing ball illusion? -They see the ball leave the hand and disappear o Do the eyes follow the trajectory of the vanishing ball? -Using eye tracking equipment, they do not follow the trajectory o
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