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Social Relations.docx

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PSYC 1000
Anneke Olthof

Social Relations Attraction • Initial Attraction ➡ Physical proximity • Best indicator of whom we will meet • Mere exposure effect ➡ Repeated exposure to a stimulus increasing our liking for it ➡Similarity • Tend to be attracted to people who are similar to us ➡Physical Attractiveness • Assume more positive personality characteristics • People who are rated as physically attractive ➡ Become the objects of emotional attraction Are seen as healthy, happy, successful, and socially skilled, though not necessarily caring ➡ ➡ Are not any happier than the average person ➡ Do not have higher self-esteem • Who is rated as physically attractive ➡ Standards differ from culture to culture about what facial and body features are desirable ➡ Across cultures • Men seek apparent youth and fertility Women seek maturity, masculinity, affluence • • Both like facial symmetry and averageness • Nice people and loved ones • Similarity and Attraction Opposites don’t really attract ➡ • We enjoy being with people who have similar attitudes, beliefs, sense of humour, intelligence, interests, age, education, and income • We also like those who like us back • Romantic Love Often starts with attraction or friendship ➡ ➡ Then a phase of passionate love ➡ Grows into compassionate love ➡ Made close by equity and self-disclosure ➡ Held together by positive interaction support • Passionate Love ➡ A state of strong attraction, interest, and excitement that is felt so strongly that people are absorbed in each other • Physiological arousal • Sweating • Heart Pounding • Intense desire to be around the other • Compassionate Love ➡ Deep caring, affectionate, and strong attachment or commitment • Keys to a long lasting love relationship ➡ Equity • Both giving a receiving, sharing responsibilities, with a sense of partnership ➡ Self-disclosure • Sharing self in conversation increases intimacy ➡Positive Interaction and Support Offering sympathy, concern, laughs, hugs • Helping Others • Altruism ➡ Unselfish regard for the welfare of other people ➡ Helping and protecting others without need for personal gain, doing it because it is the right thing to do, often despite personal risk or sacrifice • How do bystanders make a decision about helping? ➡ Attention • Notices incident ➡Appraisal • Interprets incident as an emergency ➡ Social Role • Assumes responsibility Taking action ➡ • Multiple Bystander Effect ➡ Fewer people help when others are available ➡ Why? • Diffusion of responsibility ➡ “There are many people here who could offer help” • Following what otters are doing ➡ “No one is helping so I won’t be the first one” • Rationalization about lack of help ➡ “If no one is helping, they must know its not serious” • Bystanders are most likely to help when ➡ The person we might help: • Appears to be in need, deserving of assistance • Is a woman, and/or is similar to us in some way • Is in a small town or rural area At the time, we are: ➡ • Feeling some guilt • Not in a hurry • In a good mood (strongest predictor of helping) • Norms/Processes influencing helping ➡ Utilitarianism • Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number of people ➡Social Responsibility • Others depend on us to help • It’s the right thing to do ➡Social Exchange • We help if it brings more benefit than cost ➡Re
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