Class Notes (807,634)
Canada (492,763)
Psychology (3,805)
PSYC 1000 (904)

Summary of Lectures.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Joe Prokipcak

Psyc Notes Lecture 1: The Story of Psychology - Aristotle: first to make link/formally think about relationship between body and psyche - Wilhelm Wundt: First psyc. Lab in 1879, made pscy. a science by adding observations/experiments - Titchner: tried to make scientific but too subjective; formed structuralism (structure of the mind) - William James: formed school of thought called functionalism (function of the mind) - Behaviourism: o John B. Watson: Can’t study the mind because we can’t get into others’minds, too subjective, showed phobias can be learned o B. F. Skinner: agreed with Watson, general laws of learning can be applied to anyone; consequences of behaviour influence future behaviour - Sigmund Freud: most drives are aggressive/sexual in nature, role of the unconscious - Humanists disagreed, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers: focused on freedom, choice, self- actualization - Psyc’s biggest question: Nature vs. Nurture - Three levels of analysis: Explaining shyness o Biological: genes to be shy o Social: large crowds o Psychological: way you’re raised, overbearing home - Perspective influences the questions you asked about behaviour - Seven perspectives in psychology: o Cognitive: how information is processed, stored, retrieved o Sociocultural: how behaviour and thinking varies across cultures and situations o Behavioural: how genes and environment influence our individual differences o Neuroscience: how the brain and body enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences o Psychodynamic: THINK FREUD, how behaviour results from unconscious drives and forces o Behaviourist: how the environment shapes our behaviour o Evolutionary: how natural selection has promoted the survival of genes - Branches in psychology: o Basic research: psycs. Who seek to understand behaviour by conducting research o Applied research: psycs, who use knowledge accumulated from the experimental psycs. - Basic research: o Physiological: mainly use animals o Comparative: how have evolved (animals) o Developmental: change as you age o Social: others influence us o Sense and perception: take in info, make sense of it o Learning: animals, past exp. Influence future behaviour o Neuropsychology: brain-related o Cog: thought, problem solving o Personality: measuring how we respond to enviro o Psychometrics: tests - Applied research: o Clinical: treat + diagnose serious, can’t give drugs o Clinical neuropsychologist: treat ppl. With brain trauma o Counselling: tuned-down clinical, school/marriage o Health: healthier lifestyles, govt. o Educational: with parents + teachers, best way to teach o Community: modify programs ppl. use (homeless) o Consumer: Marketing depts.., one choice of product over the other o Industrial: big companies, employee moral, everyone happy and productive Lecture 2: Psychology as a Science and Experimental Research - Natural thinking style can fail: hindsight bias, overconfidence error, mistakenly perceiving order in random events, using science to make things more accurate - Need for critical thinking skills - Important concepts: theory, hypothesis, operational definitions (definitions of variables), replication - Data collection: o Case study: in-depth investigation of a single participant using different data collection techniques o Naturalistic observation: observe/record participant’s natural behaviour, without influencing participant o Survey: participants asked a series of questions about certain aspects of behaviour - Experimental research: researcher manipulates the variable, performance is compared across different groups of participants, can make casual conclusions - Independent/dependent variable, experimental group, control group - Random sampling keeps groups as similar as possible Lecture 3: Correlational Research and Basic Statistics - Relation between variables - NOTHING IS MANIPULATED in correlational research - “r” symbolizes the correlation coefficient, closer to +/- 1 means strongly related - NOT causation, could be caused by a third variable - Good for studying things you can’t manipulate - Critical that your sample size is the same as the population in as many ways as possible  race, gender, socioecon. situation, etc. - 2 types of stats used: o Descriptive: used to organise raw data into meaningful descriptions o Inferential stats: used to determine if your findings are likely to be found in whole population, or genuine/not due to chance - Mean = average, median = middle score, mode = most common score - Measures of variability: o Range = highest score – lowest score o Standard deviation: calculation of the average distance of scores from the mean, better measure - Results are statistically significant if there is less than a 5% chance that results are due to chance alone Lecture 4: Neural and Hormonal Systems - Each brain cell has a job but function in pack (circuit) with other neurons - Parts of a neuron: o Dendrites: receive messages from other neurons (literally branches) o Axon: messages from cell body; some covered in a myelin sheath o Myelin sheath: improves speed/efficiency o Terminal axon: bulbous, where neurotransmitters are stored - Neural communication: o Neurons don’t actually touch, fractional space called synaptic cleft o Neurotransmitter is accepted by receptor o Inside of axon is negatively charged at -70 mV when resting o Negative because of diffusion and electrostatic pressure - Organic ions contribute to resting potential o Stuck in cell, cant cross membrane but help attract/repel - Potassium (K): more inside than outside the cell, flows freely across the membrane; diffusion wants to push out, electrostatic wants to keep in - Sodium (Na): Key player outside the cell; both diffusion and electrostatic pressure want to push inside - Resting potential: So why does Na stay concentrated outside the cell? o Difficult to move across membrane o Sodium-potassium pump (active transport): Pushes 3 Na outside for every 2 K ions - Action potential: o Na rushes into the cell o Causes an action potential (sudden/brief increase in the permeability of the cell’s membrane to Na+ o Done with help from the voltage-gated sodium channel o First, membrane must be depolarized (made to 10-20 mV) o If cell depolarization reaches a certain level (threshold) the Na channels open o Cells electric charge swings dramatically to +40 o Voltage-gated sodium channels close until cell returns to resting state o Potassium channels also open but with a bit of lag o Diffusion/elec. pressure work harder to force K ions outside the cell, causing the cell to be hyperpolarize (moving to –ve direction) - All or none law: o Action potential either happens or doesn’t o Comparable to firing a gun- all or nothing and @ same speed o Can vary: rate of firing, number of neurons - 100150+ neurotransmitters - Each have a different effect (some excited, some inhibit) - Action potential reaches terminal boutons o Each terminal bouton contains many synaptic vesicles, or small, balloon-like sacs of neurotransmitters o Causes some of the synaptic vesicles to open, releasing neurotrans. Into the synaptic cleft o Some reach the receiver neuron and bind with receptors o Can change polarity more like to fire own neurot. o Can cause specific ion channels to open - Depending on the channel opened, can cause: o excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), brings the neuron closer to the threshold and makes it easier for the neuron to fire (more +) o Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP), brings the neuron farther from the threshold and makes it harder for the neuron to fire (more -) - One neuron can receive many EPSP and IPSP’s at the same time, summed effect of these two determine what happens - Reuptake: Occurs when the terminal boutons quickly remove the neurot. from the synaptic cleft - Behaviour isn’t as predictable as you think, can inhibit inhibitory neurons so behaviour increases and vice versa - Central nervous system (CNS) = brain and spinal cord and Peripheral nervous system (PNS) = all outside brain and spinal cord - Nervous system o Central (brain and spinal cord) o Peripheral:  somatic (controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles)  autonomic: controls self-regulated action of internal organs/glands • sympathetic (arousing) ex. Fight v. flight • parasympathetic (calming) (rest and digest) - CNS: most nerves enter/leave through the spinal cord, and spinal reflexes DO NOT involve the brain - Endocrine system: numerous glands throughout the body - Conveys info via hormones o Hypothalamnus: master gland, controls pituitary o Pituitary secretes many different hormones, can affect other glands o Thyroid gland: metabolism o Parathyroids: regulate level of calcium in the blood o Adrenal: inner part helps trigger fight or flight o Pancreas: regulate blood sugar o Testis/ovary: sex hormones Lesson 5: Studying the Brain - Two ways to study the brain: o What happens when part of your brain is not working normally o Study structure and function of normal brain - Damage case studies: o Normal man had a spike go up through his head, changed his whole personality after the accident, couldn’t make decisions and couldn’t suppress his animalistic tendencies - Lesioning: Damaging parts of brain tissue through surgery, done on animals; now we can do this through magnets or chemical means - Can use electrical stimulation to stimulate parts of the brain and even specific neurons - Magnetic resonance imaging scan (MRI): o Structure is created as a virtual image through using magnetic fields o Produces a clear image of the brain - Functional magnetic resonance imaging scan (fMRI): o Relies on the fact that oxygen is sent to active parts of the brain o Measures levels of oxygen in the blood over time while person is doing a task o Put on top of a structural map to get an idea of which sections are active during each activity - Positron emission tomography scan (PET scan): o Good to study function o Uses a radioactive form of glucose to see where it goes when the brain does a specific task - Electroencephalogram (EEG): o Records electrical waves across the brain’s surface o Mostly for sleep and seizures o More of an amplifier - Brainstem and cerebellum: coordinates the body - Limbic system: Manages emotions, and connects thought to the body - Cortex: integrates information - Brainstem: pons and medulla o Medulla: at the base of the brainstem Controls basic function, heartbeat and breathing are examples o Pons: helps coordinate automatic and unconscious movements, like swallowing, posture, facial expressions - Thalamus: Sensory relay station (not blindly passing on info) o All sensory info except for smell is routed through the thalamus on the way to the cortex o Higher to lower structures o Higher structures to each other o Thanks to the thalamus - Reticular formation: nerve network in the brainstem, enables alertness, filters sensory info - Cerebellum (we have 2): little brain, voluntary movement, nonverbal learning and memory - LIMBIC SYSTEM o Between brainstem and cortex o Vague area, includes thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus o Processes emotion, basic drives, memory - Hippocampus: formation of new memories o HM: removed his hippocampus because of bad seizures, became frozen in time - Amygdala: two lima bean sized clusters, fear and aggression - Hypothalamus: below the thalamus o Basic drives: body temp, food/water intake, sex drive o Directs endocrine system via messages
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.