PSYC 1000 Lecture 14: Psych notes - module 14.docx
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Psych Notes – Module 14
Maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behaviour, relatively
uninfluenced by experience.
Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and
Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Assimilation: interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
Accommodation: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information
Sensorimotor stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to 2 years) during which infants
know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Object Permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
Egocentrism: in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of
Preoperational stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from 2 to 6/7 years) during which a child
learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Conservation: the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational
reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite
changes in the forms of objects.
Theory of mind: people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states – about their feelings,
perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviours these might predict.
Concrete operational stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from 6/7 to
11/12) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about
Formal operational stage: At 12+, during which people begin to think logically about abstract
Strange anxiety: the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8
months of age.
Attachment: an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking
closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
Critical period: an optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli
or experiences produces normal development.
Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very
early in life.
Basic trust: according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said
to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
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