PSYC 1000 Lecture 23: psych notes - module 23 - oct 25.docx
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Psych Module 23 – Oct 25
Memory – the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Recall – a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as
on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Recognition – a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously
learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Relearning – a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning
Encoding – the processing of information into the memory system – for example, by extracting
Storage – the retention of encoded information over time.
Retrieval – the process of getting information out of memory storage.
Sensory memory – the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory
Short-term memory – activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a
phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term memory – the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system.
Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Working memory – a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious,
active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information
retrieved from long-term memory.
Explicit memory – memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and
“Declare” (aka declarative memory)
Effortful processing – encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Automatic processing – unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time,
and frequency, and of well-learned information such as word meanings.
Implicit memory – retention independent of conscious recollection, aka non-declarative memory.
Iconic memory – a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photo-graphic or picture-
image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
Echoic memory – a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere,
sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Chunking – organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Mnemonics – memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and
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