PSYC 1000 Lecture Notes - Erik Erikson, Day Care, Konrad Lorenz
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Course: PSYC*1000 (DE)
Professor: Harvey Marmurek
Schedule: Summer, 2012
Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers
Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615
Module 14: Infancy and Childhood
During infancy and childhood, how do the brain ad motor skills develop?
oBrain formed nerve cells in the womb; brain cortex overproduces neurons
oBorn with most of brain cells you’ll ever have; nervous system not mature
oNeural networks had wild growth spurt
oAges 3-6 most rapid growth in frontal lobes (enable rational planning)
oAssociation areas – linked with thinking, memory, and language – last cortical areas to develop
oDeveloping brain enables physical coordination
oGenes guide motor development
oMaturation creates our readiness to learn walking
oEarliest memories seldom predate our third birthday (infantile amnesia)
oMobile hooked up to foot
The biological growth process, called (maturation), explains why most children begin walking by about 12 to 15
From the perspectives of Piaget, Vygotsky, and today’s researchers, how does a child’s mind develop?
•Piaget began in 1920, Paris – developing questions for children’s intelligence tests
oChild’s mind – reason differently than adults
oPiaget’s core idea is that the driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing
struggle to make sense of our experiences
oSensorimotor Stage : take in the world through looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping;
object permanence not perceived and is something that unfolds gradually
Baby physics; baby math – infants smarter than Piaget appreciated
oEgocentrism: children have difficulty perceiving things from someone else’s point of view
Curse of knowledge
oPreoperational Stage: too young to perform mental operations
oTheory of Mind: difficulty reflecting on their own mental states; going back to the place to find the
ball, not knowing it has been moved; less likely to use the word I or me
oConcrete Operational Stage: begin to grasp conservation
oFormal Operational Stage: reasoning expands from the purely concrete; systematic reasoning
•Lev Vygotsky’s Scaffolding
o(1896-1934) Russian developmental psychologist – how a child’s mind feeds on the language of
ono! = self-control tool
oPiaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with the social environment / vs.
Vygotsky’s idea of mentoring (scaffolding)
•Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory
oPiaget identified significant cognitive milestones and stimulated worldwide interest in how the mind
develops. Today’s researchers see development as more continuous than Piaget. Detecting
beginnings of each type of thinking at earlier ages, revealing conceptual abilities Piaget missed.
Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition than Piaget thought.
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