Class Notes (836,661)
Canada (509,870)
Psychology (3,977)
PSYC 1000 (908)
Lecture 2

Week 2.doc

6 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 1000
Jeffrey Yen

PSYC 1000 17/09/2012 Theoretical conundrums in Psychology: The Nature-Nurture Question: • Nature – we share a common origins that gives us an inborn human nature in common o plato: ideas such as “the good” and “beauty” are inborn o Descartes: Some ideas are innate o Darwin: some traits, behaviours, and instincts are part of the nature of the species. • Nurture – we have differences… o Aristotle: All knowledge come though the sense o John Locke: The mind is a blank slate (blank chalkboard or screen) “written on” by experience • Biology Plus Environment are part of psychology’s three “biopsychosocial” levels of analysis • Sometimes culture can influence biology o The “deep” level, Biology: genes, brain, neuro-transmitters, survival, reflexes, sensation o The “outer” level, Environment social influence culture, education, relationships o In the “middle”, Psychology: Thought, emotions, moods, behaviours, trains, motivations, knowledge, perceptions • The three levels as influences on some psychological phenomenon • There are many perspectives for describing psychological phenomena o Cognitive perspective – how reliable is our memory? How can we improve out thinking? o Social cultural – how are our behaviours, skills, and attitudes shape by our culture? o Behavioural genetics – in what ways are our behaviour, skills, and attitudes there result of genetically programmed instincts? o Neuroscience – what toll do our bodies and brains plague in emotions? How is pain inhibits? Can we trust out senses? o Psychodynamic – how do inner childhood conflicts still plague me and affect my behaviour? o Behaviourists- Howa are our problematic behaviours reinforced? o How do out fears becomes conditioned? What can we do to change these fears and behaviours? o Evolutionary – why are humans prone to panic, anger, and making irrational judgements? • Six Blind Men and an Elephant • Psychology’s Subfields • Research o Biological o Developmental o Cognitive o Personality o Social o Positive psychology • Applied o Clinical psychology o Counselling psychology o Educational psychology o Industrial – organizational o Community psychology • Psychiatrists are physicians, M.D.s or D.O.s they can prescribe medication • In addition to psychologists, professional in social work, counselling, marriage and family therapy may be trained to do psychotherapy. Research strategies in Psychology Module 3 • Critical Thinking o Analyse this fictional result: o “People who attend psychotherapy tend to be more depressed than the average person.” Des this mean psychotherapy worsens depression” • The scientific method in psychology • The scientific methods is the process of testing out ideas about the world by o Setting up situations that test our ideas o Making careful, organized observations o Analysing whether the data fits wit our ideas o If the data doesn’t fit out ideas, then we modify out ideas, and test again • Some research findings revealed by the scientific methods: o The brain can recover from massive early childhood brain damage o sleepwalkers are not acting out dreams o Our brains do not have accurate memories locked inside like video files o There is no ‘hidden and unused 90 percent” of our brain o People often change their opinions to fit their actions o The basics  Theory  Hypothesis  Operational definitions  Replication o Research goals/types  Description  Correlation  Prediction  Causation  Experiments • Theory: the big picture o A theory, in the language of science, is a set of principles, built on observations and other verifiable facts, that explains some phenomenon and predicts its future behaviours • Example of a theory” All ADHD symptoms are a reactions to eating sugar” • Hypotheses: informed predictions • A hypothesis is a testable prediction consistent with our theory • “testable” means that the hypothesis is states in a way that could make observations to find out if it is true • To test the “all” part of the theory: “ADHD symptoms will continue for some kids even after sugar Is removed from the diet.” • Danger when testing hypotheses: theories can bias our observations o We might select only the data, or the interpretations of the data, that support that we already believe. There are safeguards against this: o Hypotheses designed to disconfirm o Operational definitions  Guide for making useful observations:  How can we measure “ADHD symptoms” in the previous example in observable terms?  Impulsivity = a # of times/hour calling out without raising hand  Hyperactivity = # of times/hour out of seat  Inattention = # of minutes continuously on task before becoming distracted o Critical theory • The next/ final step in the scientific method: replications o Replicating research means trying it again using the same operational definitions of the concepts and procedures o Could introduce a small change in the study, e.g. trying the ADHD/sugar test on college students instead of elementary students • Research process: the depression example: o Theories example – low-self esteem feeds depression o Leads to your hypotheses example: people with low self-esteem will score higher on a depression scale o Which the leads to research and observations example: administer tests on self-esteem and depression. See if a low score on one predicts a high score on the other. o You then confirm, reject or revise. PSYC 1000 19/09/2012 • Research goal and strategy: description/ qual
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.