PSYC 2040 Lecture Notes - Frontal Lobe, Emergence, Social Cognitive Theory

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28 Jan 2013
-1Lecture #18
Personality (part VI)
ŸBehaviourism is the second force of three forces that dominated 20th century (the first being
psychoanalysis, a dark view o people and their behaviour)
ŸThis is a relative neutral view, value-free point of view on behaviour
ŸProf Fourniers experience with his teacher, he acquired while learning, learning by observation, he
didn’t have to perform every technique to learn it, he would adjust his performance of a technique to
match his teachers -self efficacy, his own competence emerged (self-reflective)
Ÿ Modern social cognitive theory begins with radical behaviours (Pavlov, Skinner, etc)
ŸEarliest theories of human theories involved learning through association, a kind of learning that was
termed by Pavlov, classical conditioning , how things in the world are associated with each other
ŸUnconditioned stimuli, any even or thing in the world, that automatically has an automatic response
(reflexive, if someone comes and blows in your eye, you‘ll blink, you don’t have to learn to do that)
Ÿ Tone goes off and they blow in your face and you blink, and the repetition of the tone then blow in
your face, will cause you to blink without the puff in your face, and only the tone which is a
conditioned or learned response
ŸWatson used these theories with animals and nine month old Albert, Albert wasn’t afraid without
anything, but then every time he presented a rat, he turned on a loud screechy noise that scared the
baby, so after a while, when the rat was shown, the baby feared for the associated noise and therefore
was afraid of the rat, and other things that were white also made Albert afraid, other problems
ŸSignificant responses are also learned behaviours through associations with unconditioned stimuli
ŸWe learn through occasion and consequence also, called instrumental conditioning, if you imagine
little boy who sees a bookshelf, and decides to treat it as a ladder, what causes the boy to climb the
bookshelf, the unconditioned stimulus that causes him to climb, skinner says there is nothing causing
him to climb, but the bookshelf poses the opportunity and occasion to climb, however there are
consequences to actions, if he sees something shiny and reaches it, he will be encouraged to climb the
book shelf, but if he brings the book shelf down upon him, he would be unlikely to climb another one
ŸSkinner saw behaviour as occurring in situation as opportunities or occasions, and there are
consequences, positive increasing the likelihood of that behaviour, and negative consequences
decreasing the likelihood
ŸOur behaviour is learned through our consequences of our actions
ŸThorndike called this the law of effective
ŸThorndike has this idea how behaviours created a satisfied or dissatisfied state of being (the difference
of skinners theory)
ŸSkinner coined the reinforcing (positive consequences that reinforce or encourage behaviours),
punishing (negative consequences that punish and discourage behaviours) and shaping concept (the
occurrence of reinforcers and punishers that help to shape our behaviour, the production of a particular
kind of behaviour because of the systematic way that creates it)
Ÿe.g. story of shaping, skinners class tried to play a trick, every time he is one side of the room, no one
paid any attention, made a lot of noise, etc. but when he stood on the other side of the lecture hall,
everyone was quiet, paid attention, made eye contact, etc. So by the end of the year, skinner was
trained to stand at side of the hall where more of his students listened, by the reinforcing an punishing
qualities of his audience, without his awareness (probably not true)
ŸEarly views of learning, we learn by association and through occasion and consequence, basic ideas of
skinner and Watson, predominated most of the century of human behaviour
ŸThere was an emphasis on observable behaviour, things that can be measured, focus on
experimentation, too look at behaviour under controlled stimulated instances to look at what causes
ŸIdea of parsimony, simplicity, the number of principles is small, the number of things that it explains is
a whole wide range of phenomenas
ŸProblems of behaviourism include that you lose sight of the learner, none of the laws make any
reference inside the mind of the behaviour, and to some extent, we know there are thoughts, feelings,
motives and goals, and it is more intuitive if they are incorporated
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