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Nov 20 Prejudice & Discrimination.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Prejudice & Discrimination Nov. 20 , 2012 Paths to Discrimination - Stereotype: attitude/thoughts towards - Prejudice: your feeling toward minorities or prejudice groups - Discrimination: behaviour or readiness of action against prejudice or stereotyped group Discrimination - “Prejudice is a negative attitude toward a socially defined group and toward any person perceived to be a member of that group” (Ashmore, 1970, p. 253). - We are less likely to express our attitude when it is socially unacceptable. (ex. we are dismissive of people who are fat, gay, bisexual, different colour) so we are less likely to be able to address or measure people’s attitudes towards these individuals. Controversy in Prejudice Literature - Survey studies: o Rely on verbal report o Prejudice is declining - Covert measure studies o Don’t ask what people think, look at their behaviour instead. o Rely on non-verbal and indirect measure  Don’t usually look at someone in the eyes when you’re with someone of an out-group rather than in-group  Tend to have more speech error when interacting with people we have negative attitudes towards  Tend to stand further apart when interacting with people we have negative attitudes towards o Implicit Association Test  Tests the conscious or subconscious attitudes we have toward any other group  People are much slower pairing positive words with African-Americans; why? Subconsciously we have learned association between words. Something is negative, and we have learned to associate that in our mind. Things that are well-learned, your reaction is much faster. Highly valid test. o Prejudice is still dominant force in intergroup relations  We all have prejudice attitudes towards outgroup people; belief that prejudice has NOT decreased o Which measure should be trusted? Theories of the Origins of Prejudice - Inherent human potential for prejudice o Ingroup favouritism (Tajfel et al., 1971)  Because you belong to one of those groups, you automatically favour the group you belong to, even under group paradigm (when you have little information of group but know that they are part of YOUR group) - Intergroup dynamics o Realistic conflict theory (Levine & Campbell, 1972)  Conflict over resources (jobs, land, etc.); over things that are limited and that not everyone can have a piece of  We like certain immigrants more than other immigrants; valued and not-valued immigrants. Valued = British immigrants; not valued = Arab immigrants. We don’t dislike all out-groups to the same degree. There must be something else other than conflict for resources. Intergroup Conflict - Robbers Cave Study (Sherif et al., 1961) o Participants: Eleven-year-old-boys; middle-class, good family, good neighbourhood, 3 week study. Thought they were participating in a summer camp. o Location: Robber’s Cave State Park, Oklahoma o First week, boys met people, played games, ate together. Divided into different subgroups, slept together, etc. Started building a group identity. At the end of the first week they were told “you’re not the only group here, another group is going to come and you guys are going to compete and the winners will receive prizes and points. Three Phases of the Study - Phase 1: creating ingroups o Two groups were created: Rattlers & Eagles o Categorization led to ingroup favouritism - Phase 2: intergroup competition o Groups come together and start to compete (extra food, extra playtime, prizes to take home, etc) o Categorization plus competition led to conflict - Phase 3: intergroup cooperation o Fight started breaking out. They started getting into each other’s cabins and stealing things, etc. Counsellors started telling the other groups that the opposite groups were nice people and actually liked them! It didn’t work. They tried to bring them together in a non-competitive competition to see if conflict would resolve. It didn’t work. They tried to bring them to cooperate for one goal that was valuable for both groups (mutual goal). THIS led to cooperation. This truck of food is stuck on hill, both foods need to pull truck to camp. Only under that circumstance, the groups started to cooperate. o Shared superordinate goal led to cooperation Theories of the Origins of Prejudice (cont…) - Intergroup dynamics o Realistic conflict theory (Levine & Campbell, 1972) o Relative deprivation (Olson et al., 1986)  We know that the group that has power might dislike the minority group even though the power group themselves are not endangered. Nevertheless, they feel that the other group is getting more than it deserves. White people s
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