PSYC 2310 Lecture Notes - Realistic Conflict Theory, Implicit-Association Test, Speech Error
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Prejudice & Discrimination
Nov. 20th, 2012
Paths to Discrimination
- Stereotype: attitude/thoughts towards
- Prejudice: your feeling toward minorities or prejudice groups
- Discrimination: behaviour or readiness of action against prejudice or stereotyped group
- “Prejudice is a negative attitude toward a socially defined group and toward any person perceived to be a
member of that group” (Ashmore, 1970, p. 253).
- We are less likely to express our attitude when it is socially unacceptable. (ex. we are dismissive of people
who are fat, gay, bisexual, different colour) so we are less likely to be able to address or measure people’s
attitudes towards these individuals.
Controversy in Prejudice Literature
- Survey studies:
o Rely on verbal report
o Prejudice is declining
- Covert measure studies
o Don’t ask what people think, look at their behaviour instead.
o Rely on non-verbal and indirect measure
Don’t usually look at someone in the eyes when you’re with someone of an out-group
rather than in-group
Tend to have more speech error when interacting with people we have negative
Tend to stand further apart when interacting with people we have negative attitudes
o Implicit Association Test
Tests the conscious or subconscious attitudes we have toward any other group
People are much slower pairing positive words with African-Americans; why?
Subconsciously we have learned association between words. Something is negative, and
we have learned to associate that in our mind. Things that are well-learned, your
reaction is much faster. Highly valid test.
o Prejudice is still dominant force in intergroup relations
We all have prejudice attitudes towards outgroup people; belief that prejudice has NOT
o Which measure should be trusted?
Theories of the Origins of Prejudice
- Inherent human potential for prejudice
o Ingroup favouritism (Tajfel et al., 1971)
Because you belong to one of those groups, you automatically favour the group you
belong to, even under group paradigm (when you have little information of group but
know that they are part of YOUR group)
- Intergroup dynamics
o Realistic conflict theory (Levine & Campbell, 1972)
Conflict over resources (jobs, land, etc.); over things that are limited and that not
everyone can have a piece of
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