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March 14.docx

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

March 14, 2013 – PSYCH 2310 Altruism and Intergroup Relations empathy-altruism hypothesis o it refers to feeling empathy for a person in need which leads to altruistic motivation to relieve that need o Testing aversive-arousal reduction vs. empathy-altruism hypothesis  Experimental design: escape (easy vs. difficult) empathy (low vs. high) o Empathy = you can see someone else’s perspective and can identify with it o Other person in this study is very similar to you – try to imagine yourself in his or her shoes – try to see their perspective – we are increasing the level of empathy when you feel similar to other person – Altruistic Helping - according to empathy-altruism hypothesis people are not primarily selfish, at least not always! - It is altruism? o Bob, a university student spends three hours per week as a “big brother” to an eight-year-old boy whose father has died.  It could be mood enhancement or negative-state relief o Jill a university student gives a pint of blood in exchange for $7.00  No it’s direct reciprocation o Believing that those who give shall receive great blessing in return, Ali contributes their family’s monthly pay cheque to their church fund drive.  Reciprocation o Newsha anonymously donates $500 to a local charity.  Altruistic? Maybe. It could be if we can manipulate measure or be able to examine her empathic tendency. o Esmeralda agrees to donate her eyes for transplant in the event of her death.  You can argue either way. It gets into a more gray area. Helping Strangers! - cross-cultural differences in helping strangers o large cities in 23 countries o three conditions of helping were:  dropped pen  busy time, busy street in the cities, few metres away from a person comes walking towards him – how many people pick up the pen and run back and give it to him.  hurt leg  experimenter wearing leg brace – drops magazines, how many people stop and pick up magazines March 14, 2013 – PSYCH 2310  helping a blind person across the street  experimenter wearing big dark sunglasses, wants to cross street- when light for pedestrian turns green, how many people lend their arms to help experimenter cross the street o researchers guessed collectivistic countries would be more helpful o most helpful countries:  brazil, rio den janeiro  cost rico, san jose  malawai, Lilongwe  india, Calcutta  autrsia, Vienna  spain, Madrid  Denmark, Copenhagen  China, shanghai  Mexico, mexico city  El Salvador, san Salvador  Czech republic, prague  Sweden, Stockholm o Spanish and Portuguese culture – concept of agreeable, helpful is highly valued – helping the stranger fits in this simpatico o The less a society is, the more helpful they are – if you are lost, get lost in a Spanish culture or Africa! o Least helpful countries:  Hungary, Budapest  Romania, Burcharest  Israel, Tel Aviv  Italy, Rome  Thailand, Bangkok  Taiwan, Taipei  Bulgaria, Sofia  Netherlands, Amsterdam  Singapore, Singapore  United States, New York City  Malaysia, Kuala Lampur Definition of Intergroup Behaviour - “whenever individuals belonging to one group interact, collectively or individually, with another group or its members in terms of their group identification, we have an instance of intergroup behaviour.” (Sherif, 1966, p. 12) - you are
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