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Lecture

CHAPTER 6.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
Lana Trick

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CHAPTER 6 HOW DO WE FORM ATTITUES - attitudes: positive and negative evaluations of people, ideas, objects and events - formed quickly, without conscious awareness - classical conditioning, information, operant conditioning, observational learning information - info received through social environment - parents, teachers etc negative information - stonger influence than positive information (negativity bias) - negative info mro eimpotant to survival - tested through EEG’s, larger brain waves for negative classical conditioning - association between an obect or person or event - classical conditioning: a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a specific response, and eventually the neutral stimulus elicits that response on its own - dogs salivating to bell - mere ecposure: the phenomenon by which the greater the exposeure we have to a given stimulus, the more we like it - eg song on radio - subliminal persuasion: a type of persuasion that occurs when stimuli are presented at a very rapid and unconscious level – can strengthen attitudes we already hold Operant conditioning - operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behabviour that is rewarded increases wheras beahviour that punishes decreases - explains why people form attitues similar to parents - also explains conformity – peers - men and women differ in social and political issues, women have more social compassionate attitudes and morally traditional attitudes. More liberal on social compassion but more conservative on issues of traditional morality Observational Learning - observational learning: a type of learning in which peoples attitudes and behaviour are influenced by watching other peoples attitudes and behaviour - more effective when done by someone similar to urslef - most effective when directly observing behvaioru by parents, siblings or friends, but also works with celbrities HOW MUCH ATTIDUES MATTER - predict future outcome, but attitues are not always a very good predicter - genes can influence various aspects of behaviour WHEN DO ATTITUDES PREDICT BEHVIOUR - attitudes and behaviour are not always linked - what factors influence attitude-behaviour link: strength, accessibility, specificity, social norms Strength - strong attitudes more liely to predict behaviour Importance - highly important to us predict behaviour - eg people think high-quality schools are good for society, but those with young children will more liley act on that Direct Experience - direct experience forms tronger attitudes. Better predicter - you may think youd act a certainw ay but might not act that way in reality Accessibility - ease of accessibility in which oens attitude comes to mind - people who are well informed about topic – bettwer predictor - situational factors can influence accessibility (eg situational factors that increase self awareness can elad people to engage in behaviour that is in line with their attitudes, because of the factors that increasdrf their awareness, like watching yourself in a mirror) - vice versa – eg alcohol makes lower self awarness and dumb decisions specificity - attitudes towads a specific behaviour (eg well dressed Chinese couple) show a stonger link to bejaviour than more general attitudes Social Norms - the informal rules a given group has for its members - behaviour heavily influence by others in our groups - eg smoke around certain friends who smoke - social norms about a particular attitude mor elikeley to lead to behaviour - Two theories of social norms: Theory of Planned behaviour - a theory that describes peoples behabviour as caused byt heir attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behaviourl control - influenced by intentions, plan to engage in this behaviour - influenced by positive or negative feelings about engaging, what others might uthink, and if you believe you can sucessfuly engage - stronger when it is easy to control (eg taking vitamins) Prototype/willingness model - a model that describes the role of prototypes, social images of what people who engage in the behaviour are like, in influencing their willingness to engage in the behaviour in a given situation - eg see students who drink and drive as careless, you are less likely to dirnk and drive - good predicter of health risk behaviours WHY AND WHEN ATTITDUES DO MATTER - can design strategies to increase above factors as a way of changing ones behaviour eg making more posters and signs about smoking to increase accessibility fctor WHEN DOES ENGAGING IN A BEHAVIOUR LEAD TO ATTITUDE CHANGE - link between attitudes and behaviours can go both ways - those who suffer severe initiation to get in a group like the group more - ways in which behaviour changes attitudes: cognitive dissonance theory - a theory that describes attitude change as occurring in order to reduce the unpleasant arousal people experience when they engage in a behaviour that conflicts with their attitude or when they hold two conflicting attitudes - eg being a strong believer inr ecycyling but throwing out acan into a garbage can - reduce this by changing out behaviour to be consistent with attitudes, often hard to do - also reduce by seeing it as not important (trivialization). Not effective with highly important decision - MOST COMMON reduce: changing our attitudes to match behaviour Insufficient justification - receiving insufficient justification (reward) for engaging in an attitude- discrepant behaviour leads to attitude change )if you engage in a behaviour that is counter attitudinal, you must make some kind of justification, higher external justifican (20$) you will attribute your behaviour to external factors and not change your attitude - if lower external justification, epeople explain behaviour using internal gactors insufficient deterrence/punishment - offering insufficient deterrence for not doing something desirable - receiving real threat does nto change attitude - mild threat = long lasting and internally based efford justification - if you work hard for something and it wasn’t worth the effort, you quickly justify the effort you spent - explains why we stay in bad relationships for long - high effort – bigger attitude change Justifying decisions/postdecision dissonance - making difficult decisions – choosing an appealing option means giving up an eppealing option - changing attitudes towars both alternatives as a way of reducing discomfort, eg increasing positive feelings about alternative they chose REVISIONS TO THE DISSONANCE THEORY - new look and self standards models new look - four steps necessary for people to experience attotdude change following dissonance - 1. Negative or aversive consequences, - eg lying to someone - 2. Personal responsibility - for negative consequences of their actions - 3. Physiological arousal and discomfort - 4. Attribution of that aroual to his/her own behaviour - cant just blame on external factors - WEAKness: people can show attitude change following engaging in an attidue inconsistent behaviour in the absense of any aversive consequence Self standards model - a model that proposes people experience discomfort whenever they see their behaviour as deviating froms oem type of important personal or normative standard, but that the strategy they use to reduce this dissonance will depend on what thoughts about the self are currently accessible - only when given feedbck relevant to behaviour - feel uncomfortable wtachign someone engage in counter behaviour WHAT ARE ALTERNATIVES TO COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY - opportunity to affirm an important part of yourself self perception theory - the theory that people infer their attitudes by simply observing their behaviour - people don’t change attitudes, they look at behaviour to determine them - centerfold example Impression management theory - a theory that individuals are not motivated to be consistent but rather to appear consistent - don’t want to be seen as hypocritical, show others our attitudes and behaviours are in line even if they are not - people ar emor likely to change attitudes following an interaction with an unattractive experimenter than an attractive one – shows people have to justify their reasons for engaging in a behaviour - impression management theory would say that greater attitude changes occurs in front of the attractive experiementer, when tou are motivated to try to appear consistent – inconsistent with robby the robot study Self affirmation theory - a theory that describes how people can reduce the arousal caused by cognitive dissonance by affirming a different part of their identities, even if that identity is completely unrelated to the cause of the arousal - eg affirming an important part of yourself - resolve dissonances by doing something nice - not true when given a direct opportunity to resolve dissoance COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY AND SELF AFFIRMATION THEORY MOST LIKELY EXPLANATIONS HOW DOES CUTURE IMAPCT ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE - Asians need to justify choice onf reidns behalf more than own Attitudes Factors predicting attitudes - people in collectivistic cultures are more influenced by social norms than individualistic - people in individualistic cultures are more influenced by information about what they have done in the past eg consistencry attitude behaviour consistency - consistency is mro eimportant in individualistic cultures (emphasize role of stable internal traits) - collectivistic emphasize power of situation Cognitive dissonance - majority of this effect in western cultures - collectivistic cultures may not ever expeierence conflicting attitudes - collectivistic experience dissonance when making a difficult decision about a friend - dissonance in collectivistic cause by concern about possible rejection from others CHAPTER 7 Persuasion: communication that is designed to influence ones attitudes HOW DO WE PROCESS PERSUASIVE MESSAGES - people are just as persuaded listening to wea arguments at a face pase as storng arguments at a normal pade routes to persuasion - elaboration likelihood model (ELM): a model describing two distinct routes of persuasion (central and peripheral) that are used to process persuasive messages - central or systematic route: a type of processing of persuasive messages that occurs when people have the ability and motivation to carefully listen to and evaluate the arguments in a persuasive message - peripheral or heuristic route: a type of processing of persuasive messages that occurs when people lack the ability and motivation to carefully listen to and evaluare a persuasive message and hence are influenced only by superficial cues - eg ad – make decisions on superficial characters factors that influence type of processing used - ability to focus and motivation to focus ability to focus - not distracted - better concentration leads to better processing on messages - works with caffeine motivated to focus - uninvolved or uninterested in message - rely on peripheral cues such as length of message, sourse etc if no motivation which route is more effective - central for personally related - central longer lasting and more resistant to future persuasione ffors WHAT FACTORS SINFLUENCE PERSUASION - when persuasion affects your own beliefs slash likes, you may react in a highly defensive way Source: who delivers the message - spokesperson,a ctor, narater etc - sources attractiveness, similarity and credibility attractiveness - attractive and likeable are more persuasive - unlikable more persuasive in writing similarity - friends more persuasive - more in common with friend - remember in group messages better Credibility - trustowrty, competenet - eg tiger woods on golf clubs - conertn about peoples ulterior motives - people who volunteer seen as more credube - people who are not seen as biased are more credible - repeated exposure increased credibility - sleeper effect: the phenomenon by which a message that is initially not particularily persuasive becomes more persuasive over time - remember the message and not the speaker Content of the message - some based on information, some based on positive emotion, some based on fear length - long messages more effective if the message is strong and processed centrally, less effective if weak and processed peripherally - STEALING THUNDER – saying own weaknesses to reduce impact of neg info. Two sided messages are very effective Discrepancy - discrepancy from audiences original attitude - to discrepant ar eliekley to be ignored - coffe example - reading both sides of ingormation leads to attidtude extremety (evidence for their view is seen as quite strong and those opposing their view is weak) Audience - individual difference factors (age, egender eetc) can influence the effectiveness of persuasiveness demographics - late adolescent early adult years most influences - less stable attitudes, follow authority, easily influenced - early and late adulthood more responsice than mid adulthood - late adulthood = more persuaded my meaningful goals - women more easily persuaded than men, women more influenced by face to face persuasion Personality - self moniters – more reactive to image ads - how people see themselves – those who are highly identified as something have more impact of persuasion if it comes through a neighborhood source than a general source and vice versa - higher need to think, use central processing,more persuaded by storng messages - those low in need to think are influenced by eripheral ciews HOW CAN SUBTLE FACTORS INFLUENCE PERSUASION - subtle factors can strongly influence behaviour the impact of emotional appeals - create messages that try to arouse particular emotions fear based appeals - try to create threat of engaging in certain behaviour - or by failing to engage in a behaviour - good for helath related behaviours - not always effective (DARE eg) - people who feel more vulnerable to ad are more persuaded - people can report to change but in reality not change - most likely to influence when forcing people to imagine they have aparticular disease or problem (heighten vulnerability) - personal testimonials more effective - provide opportunity to self affirm – greater influenced - short term effects more persuasive than long term The power of positive emotion - people in a good mood more easilt persuaded, less likely to carefully process information - agree with whatever you hear - strength of persuasion has no effect on persuasion in negative persuasions - sad people rely on content of message - sad people more lijekely to sue central route processing - unconscious thinkigns and emotions have stron influence on boting behaviour the impact of subliminal messages - subliminal persuasion: a type of persuasion that occure when stimuli are presented at a very rapid unconscious level - products seen a lot can persuade to buy - put their products in show so that they are seen a lot - in short term can influence - no evidence that subliminal processing like audio tapes to hypntize work - power of belief is strong, subliminal processing does not have a long term effect HOW CAN YOU RESIST PERSUASION Forewarning - forewarning: making people aware that they will soon receive a persuasive message - makes it easy to resist attempts of persuasion - allows people to construct counter arguments - forwarning useful if it ibolbes specific training on evaluating features of persuasive messages Reactance - reactance: the idea that people react to threats to their freedom to engae I a behaviour by becoming even more likely to emgage in that behaviour - eg your parents really hate who your dating, so you become more attatched to that person to avoid letting your parents restrict your freedom - people like to rebel - messages emphasizing moderatyion is more effective than that emphasize abstinence Inoculation - inoculation: the idea that exposure to a weak vrsion of a persuasive message strengthens peop;es ability to resist the message later on - allows people to better defend against a stronger version later on and even increases attitude certainty - counterargument leads to more effective persuasion, they refute arguments against engaging in tarfgeted behaviour Attitude importance - attitudes more important to use are more resistant to persuasion - people who are highly self aware, more resistant - people who consider a message in termsof how it relates to their important values show greater resistence to attempts to change their attitude - self control plays a key role HOW DOES CULTURE IMPACT PERSUASIOn - collectivistic more likely to focus on conformity, individualistic focus on uniqueness Types of persuasive message used - peacefulness - ads tend to emphasize themes of a culture The effectiveness of different persuasive messages - ad appeals that stress interdependeness and togetherness more popular in collectivistic - US empathy and peacefulness are effective to increase helping - China pride and hapienss incrrese helping CHAPTER 8 - social norms: UNspoked but hsared rules of conduct in a formal or informal group - conformity: the tendency to change our perception, opinions or behaviours in ways that are consistent with perceived group norms - compliance: changes in behaviour that are caused by a direct request - obedience: behaviour change produced by the commands of authority HOW DO SOCIAL NORMS INFLUENCE BEHAVIOUR - we often see our own behaviour as different from and caused by different factors than otjer peoples The power of social norms - serve as appropriate guidelines gfor behaviour - may change your norms when entering a diff3ren group - descriptive norms: norms that describe how people behave in a given situation - injunctive norms: norms that describe what people ought to do in a given situation, meaning the ty
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