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Chapter 7.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2310
Professor
Andrew Robinson
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 7: Persuasion  Persuasion: communication that is designed to influence a person’s sttitudes and behaviour. Methods of Investigation  Controlled experiment: ad: provides context for addressing whether or not an effect is real and which theoretical account explains it. Dd: eliminate other sources of influence  Participant Observation: when researchers become an observer and participant od the situation and learn the dynamic of the setting How do we process persuasive messages?  Smith and Shaffer: Asked participants to listen to a speech supposedly made by another student. Condition 1) speech had strong arguments, 2) Didn’t> weak arguments at normal speed lease persuaded. But speed made a difference at first. Routes to Persuasion  Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM): Petty and Cacioppo: o Central/systematic route: when people think carefully about communication message and are influenced by the strength of arguments o Peripheral/heuristic route: don’t think carefully and are influences by superficial characteristics  Factors that influence type of route used; o High ability.motivation> Central route and vice versa o Ability to focus: Petty: found those who had no distraction were persuade by strong messages but not by weak o Motivation to focus: if you are uninvolved or uninterested in message so are likely to rely on peripheral cues (associated with context of message rather than content). Howard: found when participant’s involvement with a message as low were more persuaded by familiar phrases than by literal phrases o Peripheral cues also include the presumed expertise of the person delivering the message: Petty: students listened to a speaker promoting benefits of mandatory exams for all students, # IV: 1) expertise of speaker 2) message strength 3) personal involvement >primary factor that predicted sttitude was pertise of speaker.  Hafer, Reynolds, and Overtynski: varied argument strength, word complexity and source status> found when arguments were easy to comprehend attitudes were more favourable when the arguments were strong. Which Route is more Effective?  Messages high of personal relevance motivate us to pay attention so use central route  Meesages low of personal relevance are processed peripherally  Attitude change that is based in central route processing is longer lasting and more resistant to future persuasion efforts. What factors influence persuasion?  Liberman & Chaiken: Participants (those who drank coffee and those who didn’t) had to evaluate article >those who drank coffee found the strong and weak reports much less convincing >found information personally relevant- were threatened-processed info in defensive way Source: Who delivers the Message  Attractiveness: Eagly and Chaiken: attractive people were successful in getting signatures 41% of the time compared to 32% >partly because attractive people are seen to have positive qualities.  Similarity: we remember message presented by in group members better than those presented by outgroup member. More persuases by people we identify with. Dan cin: found greater identification with the smoking protagonist predicted stronger associations between the self and smoking and increase smokers intention to smoke  Silva: students who believed they shared a first name and birth date with author of essay rated their agreement with the essay 6.18 compared to 4.19  Credibility: Competent and trustworthy. People who argue unexpected positions are especially persuasive because they are seen as highly credible  Eagly, Wood & Chaiken: ewhen speech was delivered by pro-businessman candidate it was most persuasive over time because people forget who the source is= sleeper effect. Content of Message  Length: long messages are more effective if they are strong and processed centrally but less effective if weak and processed peripherallu, and vice versa.  Stealing the thunder: lawyers volunteer the weaknesses in their own case, reduces impact of negative info.  Discrepancy: between the message and the audience’s original attitude >message that differ excessively from peoples attitudes are likely to be ignored > this helps to explain why attitudes become more extreme over time as people gather support for own beliefs and ignore other stuff.  Audience: individual factors; age, gender, and personality traits  Demographic factors: Those in late adolescent most influenced by persuasive messages. Lips: men and women use different strategies to influence others > men use direct and assertive strategies. Reason for this difference in social expectations  Personality: “self monitoring” > Changing attitudes and behaviour to fit situation. People regulate their behaviour either by focusing on their ideals, wishes or aspirations and avoiding negative outcomes. Yi- Messages emphasising positive outcomes. People who focused on avoiding negative outcomes were more influences by messages by presenting a negative outcome. Also peoples need to think about things affects personality >people who have a high need for cognition are more persuaded by strong message. 6 Principles of Persuasion  Cialdini; found the key to successful influence is what we do before attempting to influence 1. Reciprocation: we comply with requests of those who have previously done us a favour.  Berry and Kanouse: sent questionnaire to physcians: some received letter saying if you complete the questionnaire they will a get a $20 cheque, other half received the check with the questionnaire > 78% who received check completed questionnaire and sent it back, those that were told the cheque would be sent upon completion 66%  This is known as door in the face technique ( aka reciprocal concessions procedure)  Cialdini: Chaperoning juvenile delinquets at a zoo > most are not willing to help. However, when asked are they willing to give 3 hours of their time every week for 2 years to juvenile delinquency (response ‘no’) followed up by asking if their would be willing to chaperone juvenile delinquets at the zoo> say yes as don’t deel confortable saying no twice 2. Social Validation: we comply if others similar to us are.  Based on Social Comparison Theory (Festinger)  We follow the lead on many others and similar others  Milgram, Bickman, and Merkowitz: found when one person was looking up 47% of participants looked up at the empty sport, but when there were 6 people already looking up, 84% looked up 3. Consistency: once we take a position we tend to comply with requests consistent with this position (commitment)  This is an example of Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger)  This is an example of foot in the door technique  Pliner, Hart, Kohl, and Sarri: study on charity donation: sent research assistant a month before annual drive to collect money for charity, sent to houses in Toronto to ask residence to wear pins they were providing > Majority accepted these pins. 1 month later the actual fund started fund raising. Communities where they had been visited and given pins 76% donated compared to 46% who did not receive a pin  Legitimization of paltry flavours (or even a penny would help) technique  “How are you feeling?” technique. Always publically committed that your ok when you answer that you are feeling good (ex: on the phone) >Significant increase in people who contribute once they have passed through these techniques 4. Friendship/Liking: One is more likely to complu with the requests of friends or other liked individuals.  Tupperware Corporation  Stella and Dot Products  To increase friendship.liking: if someone is similar (you tend to comply with their request more). Compliments. Cooperation (people cooperate with you—tend to like them). Physical attractiveness(those that are >we think they are intelligent, kind and we can trust them) 5. Authority: One complies to the request of someone who is legitimate authority 6. Scarcity: we value opportunities and products that are less available  Sources of power scarcity: o Scarcity means better quality o Scarcity interferes with personal freedom and people reac against the interference by wanting to posses the it
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