- Art from opening of chapter 11; very expensive to put in textbook.
Carl Beam: first nations survivor, went to residential school.
- Barbarian: a person living outside, a person not living in a Christian country
- Chinese fire drill: a state of chaos, disorder
- Dutch treat: when each person pays his or her own expense
- Excuse my french: links the french language with negative language
- Get your Irish up: to become angry or outraged
- Indian giver: person who gives a gift & then takes it back
1. Have you used these?
2. Do you percieve these as positive or negative?
3. What do these mean & why do we use them?
- Most stereotypes are objectionable because:
1. The implicit ethnocentrism (assume that one’s ethnic group is superior/the
norm & anything outside of this norm is odd).
2. The implication that percieved differences are inborn & unalterable (ex. italians
are emotional, & that is just the way it is)
- Lippmann, a political journalist, described stereotypes as the “pictures in our heads”
How Do Stereotypes Form?
- Social categorization
- Grouping people on the basis of gender, ethnicity & other attributes
- Consequences of categorical thinking is:
- Ingroup favouritism
- Outgroup homogeneity
- Cannot work without categorization; part of human nature
Is it Inevitable?
- Stereotype as an automatic process
- Subliminal presentation (Devine, 1989)
Happens when items are presented so fast that you cannot read, identify or
Study: look at computer screen & stereotypical words of black people are
flashed on screen subliminally. When asked to interpret images, participants were
more likely to make stereotypical assumptions about the images after subliminally
presented with stereotypical words.
- Controlling automatic activation
- Motivation & devoting cognitive resources could lead to suppression of
- Bodenhausen’s (1990) experiment - STUDY: morning people were less likely to engage in stereotypes when tested in the
morning, & vice versa. (Circadian rhythms)
- Stereotypes are often used to justify the ingroup’s behav