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Lecture 3

PSYC 2310 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Sex Position, Zoophilia, Fundamental Attribution Error

7 pages51 viewsWinter 2014

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
John Walsh
Lecture
3

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Lecture 5 - Tuesday, January 21, 2014
CH. 6 - ATTITUDES
Attitudes toward exotic food
Who will eat?
How much money would it take to…?
There is no link between attitude and behavior
oWhat you say and believe may not be what you actually do
oUsing your attitude to predict your behavior is wrong
Attitudes are evaluations of ourselves, of other people, and issues with some
degree of favor and disfavor
oFor example being prejudice
Bases of attitudes
The three bases of attitudes are:
oAffect; emotions or feelings stimulated by the object of an attitude, gut
feeling, not rational, not governed by logic
oBehavioral intention; predisposition to act in a certain way, self perception
oCognition; beliefs or ideas people have about the object of an attitude,
weighing the pluses and minuses for making a logical decision (more
rationality)
Theoretical views of attitudes
Tri-component theory (Rosenbery and Hovland, 1960)
oAn attitude is a single entity that has three components (affect, behavioral
intention, and cognition), all intercorrelated
oYour behavioral intention and your cognition can be different to your
emotional reaction
oThe relation between these three components is not always positive
For example while eating ice cream you realize that it is high fat
and you are trying to eat less fat
Separate entities view of attitude (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975)
oAffects, behavioral intention and cognitive are each separate entities
which may or may not be intercorrelated.
Measuring affective components of attitudes (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975)
Describe your feelings toward snaked:
On a scale people tend to be on the extreme sides, rarely do people have neutral
feelings to certain things.
Certain things are highly associated with emotion and others are not
oDescribe the traits or characteristics of your vacuum cleaner:
oAttitudes that have a strong correlational…tend to override attitudes
towards…
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Attitude strength
Major determinants of attitude strength
oAmbivalence attitudes that are easier to be changed. You are not so sure
about it.
If you have hear a strong attitude towards that subject that your are
ambivalent about you are likely to be the same way
oAccessibility – this attitude is likely and not as easy to be changed
This type of attitude is at the forefront of your mind. You have
thought about the pros and cons of the subject and you have an
opinion and attitude towards it.
The more accessible an attitude is, the stronger it is, and
consequently, the harder it is to change.
oSubjective experiences you reflect on your behavior and based on that,
that’s what defines your attitude
Measuring attitudes
How can you measure attitudes? For example peoples attitudes towards
homosexuality?
You can use self-report measures (surveys and such)
oThe problem is that people may not be honest when is comes to sensitive
topics because it may not be socially acceptable their belief
oAlso, wording of questions, ordering of items, reluctance of respondents to
express some attitudes.
oYou can observe peoples behaviors
oCovert measures
Implicit Association Test (IAT)
Viewing people’s facial behavior
Observing people’s body language
Relation between attitude and behavior is complicated!
Behaviors and attitudes are not always consistent.
Corey’s (1937) study on cheating
oFirst he asked people how they felt about cheating. 90% said cheating was
wrong but then students were given the opportunity to cheat on a test, over
90% cheated.
LaPiere’s (1934) study on prejudice
oTravelled around the US with a Chinese couple. This was a time where
people had negative attitudes towards Chinese.
oHe found that: Yes Depends No
obehaviors 250 0 1
oattitudes 1 9 118
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