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Lecture 3

Week 3 - CH. 6

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PSYC 2310
John Walsh

Lecture 5 - Tuesday, January 21, 2014 CH. 6 -ATTITUDES • Attitudes toward exotic food • Who will eat? • How much money would it take to…? • There is no link between attitude and behavior o What you say and believe may not be what you actually do o Using your attitude to predict your behavior is wrong • Attitudes are evaluations of ourselves, of other people, and issues with some degree of favor and disfavor o For example being prejudice Bases of attitudes • The three bases of attitudes are: o Affect; emotions or feelings stimulated by the object of an attitude, gut feeling, not rational, not governed by logic o Behavioral intention; predisposition to act in a certain way, self perception o Cognition; beliefs or ideas people have about the object of an attitude, weighing the pluses and minuses for making a logical decision (more rationality) Theoretical views of attitudes • Tri-component theory (Rosenbery and Hovland, 1960) o An attitude is a single entity that has three components (affect, behavioral intention, and cognition), all intercorrelated o Your behavioral intention and your cognition can be different to your emotional reaction o The relation between these three components is not always positive  For example while eating ice cream you realize that it is high fat and you are trying to eat less fat • Separate entities view of attitude (Fishbein andAjzen, 1975) o Affects, behavioral intention and cognitive are each separate entities which may or may not be intercorrelated. • Measuring affective components of attitudes (Fishbein andAjzen, 1975) • Describe your feelings toward snaked: • On a scale people tend to be on the extreme sides, rarely do people have neutral feelings to certain things. • Certain things are highly associated with emotion and others are not o Describe the traits or characteristics of your vacuum cleaner: o Attitudes that have a strong correlational…tend to override attitudes towards… Attitude strength • Major determinants of attitude strength o Ambivalence – attitudes that are easier to be changed. You are not so sure about it.  If you have hear a strong attitude towards that subject that your are ambivalent about you are likely to be the same way o Accessibility – this attitude is likely and not as easy to be changed  This type of attitude is at the forefront of your mind. You have thought about the pros and cons of the subject and you have an opinion and attitude towards it.  The more accessible an attitude is, the stronger it is, and consequently, the harder it is to change. o Subjective experiences – you reflect on your behavior and based on that, that’s what defines your attitude Measuring attitudes • How can you measure attitudes? For example peoples attitudes towards homosexuality? • You can use self-report measures (surveys and such) o The problem is that people may not be honest when is comes to sensitive topics because it may not be socially acceptable their belief o Also, wording of questions, ordering of items, reluctance of respondents to express some attitudes. o You can observe peoples behaviors o Covert measures  ImplicitAssociation Test (IAT)  Viewing people’s facial behavior  Observing people’s body language Relation between attitude and behavior is complicated! • Behaviors and attitudes are not always consistent. • Corey’s (1937) study on cheating o First he asked people how they felt about cheating. 90% said cheating was wrong but then students were given the opportunity to cheat on a test, over 90% cheated. • LaPiere’s (1934) study on prejudice o Travelled around the US with a Chinese couple. This was a time where people had negative attitudes towards Chinese. o He found that: Yes Depends No o behaviors 250 0 1 o attitudes 1 9 118 o response rate was really low, majority said no they wouldn’t serve the Chinese couple when they actually did serve them 6 months ago o How can you predict if there is no correlation Attitudes and Behaviors • World hunger is a serious problem that needs attention – do you personally do anything to lessen world hunger? • University tuition fee is too high? – do you do anything Correspondence principle • Fishben and Ajzen (1975) resolved the controversy by introducing “correspondence Principle” • Attitudes and behaviors have to be measured at the same level of specificity or generality • Measure of attitudes: o Davidon and Jaccard (1979) study on use of birth control:  They asked what are your attitudes towards and if you use it?  Attitude to birth control: r= 0.08 (low correlation)  Attitude to birth control pulls: r =0.32 (high correlation)  Attitude to using them for next two years: r=0.57  Define your concept as narrow and specific as you can. More general less likely to be able to predict Cognitive Dissonance Theory • This theory is based on Festinger and Carlsmith’s (1959) experiment • Inconsistency among attitudes leads to tension which motivated people in the direction of attitude change. • Most decisions you make in life created dissonance. Every decision there are positive and negative components. • To reduce dissonance: o Change one of the cognitive elements associated with those choices o Introducing a third element o Seeking others opinions and information Theory of planned behavior • According to the theory of planned behavior, attitudes toward a specific behavior combine with subjective norms and perceived control influence a person’s intentions. Intentions, in turn guide behavior (Ajzen, 1991) • Behavior -> behavior intention ->: o Attitudes toward the behavior: People specific. Attitudes toward a behavior, not their general attitude. o Subjective norm: People’s belief about how other people will view the behavior in question o Perceived behavior control: the ease with which people believe can perform the behavior. Lecture 6 - Thursday, January 23, 2014 CH.Attitudes andAttributionAcross Cultures MakingAttributions in Intercultural Interactions • Types of explanations: o Ability – we explain an outcome & interactions based on ability (how smart you are or how talented you are) o Task difficulty o Effort – how much work did you put into the task o Luck • Cultures tend to use different explanations for success and failure could be different if you are from one culture as oppose to another • Isomorphic attribution (Tiandis, 1977) o When you make an attribution about a task or behavior the actor also makes the same attribution o When there is a consistency between your interpretation and the action or behavior of the actor o For example, if you were sick, in some cultures it would be acceptable to just send flowers however in other cultures don’t even bother sending flowers if you’re not going to make the effort to go to the hospital. o Another example, If a Japanese samurai were to say I want to sleep you, many people would interpret it as the samurai want
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