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9. Conformity and Obedience Across Culture.pdf

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

PSYC*2310▯ Thursday, February 6, 2014▯ Obedience and Conformity Across Culture▯ ▯ -sch Study Across Cultures▯ versions of Asch’s experiment have been replicated in more than a dozen countries▯ ▯ Conformity Studies▯ - individualistic cultures: % errors▯ - british unemployed blacks: 39%▯ - US students 37%▯ - Dutch students 24%▯ - British students 17%▯ - Belgian students 14%▯ - collectivistic cultures: % errors▯ - Indian teachers in Fiji 58%▯ - Japanese sports club members 51%▯ - Lebanese students 31%▯ - Japanese students 25%▯ - Kuwaiti students 29%▯ - conformity is higher in collectivistic societies ▯ - conformity is higher among people who’s faith/work/profession make them interdependent ▯ - more likely to conform to own group than others▯ - conformity was higher in general population than students▯ ▯ Conformity Across Cultures▯ - hunting and gathering societies and upper social segments of industrial societies, are low in conformity▯ - people need to explore their environment, need to be self-reliant, need to be individualistic▯ - conformity lower among higher classes in society: amongst the leaders of the future expected to not be conformists▯ - agricultural societies and lower social segments of industrial societies are high in conformity▯ - people need to work together▯ - workers are not expected to lean, successful when they follow orders and conform▯ ▯ John Berry’s Study▯ - Berry correlated the degree of independence with the sample’s position on an eco-cultural dimension▯ - culture is influenced by the environment around it, certain values need to develop in a culture in order for people to survive▯ - he found a correlation of .70 between eco-cultural dimension of self-reliance and independence or nonconformity ▯ - have to be self-reliant and explore their environment▯ - eco-culture associated to their behaviour and values▯ ▯ Definition of Obedience▯ - obedience is conformity in response to the commands of an authority figure ▯ - do not voluntarily change behaviour because of environment, change behaviour of a command/demand▯ ▯ Obedience to Authority▯ - Milgram’s experiments (electric shock study):▯ - what happened to people in Nazi’s regime that they could obey orders▯ - do we all have these qualities or was there something wrong with these individuals?▯ ▯ Milgram’s Basic Findings▯ - after learner starts pounding on the wall, some people stop giving shock▯ - after learner starts pounding on the wall, most people keep giving shock▯ - after learning stops answering, some people stop giving shock▯ - after learning stops answering, most people keep giving shock▯ - 60-70% of participants (teacher) gave shock to 450 volts▯ ▯ Conclusions of Milgram’s Study▯ - proximity to victim matters: more likely to give shock when learner is in another room▯ - credibility of the study: university study versus basement officer study▯ - feeling of responsibility: when told they are not responsible, obedience increases▯ - proximity of authority matters: when experimenter is on the phone, the shocks drop▯ - fear of authority: expe
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