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14. Review Session 2 (Mar 4).pdf

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

PSYC*2310▯ Tuesday, March 4, 2014▯ Midterm 2 Review Session▯ ▯ - 80 questions (40 lecture, 40 textbook)▯ - Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10 (320-332)▯ ▯ Question Breakdown▯ - Chapter 7, 8, 9: 11 questions each▯ - Chapter 10: 7 questions ▯ - 6 lectures since midterm:▯ - conformity: 7 questions▯ - obedience: 6 questions▯ - crowd behaviour: 7 questions▯ - persuasion: 7 questions▯ - cross-cultural aspects of persuasion: 6 questions▯ ▯ Chapter 7: Persuasion▯ - Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)▯ - central route: deeper process, change in behaviour that lasts longer▯ - peripheral route: persuasion about factors not central to the object/topic being discussed/ unrelated factor▯ - number of factors influencing persuasion:▯ - stealing the thunder: reduces the impact of negative, used to benefit one’s argument ▯ - resisting persuasion:▯ - forewarning about a topic coming up: exposed earlier that persuasion will happen▯ - subliminal processing:▯ - happens so fast, do not have time to think about the persuasion, don’t realize that you have been exposed to certain images▯ ▯ Practice Question▯ - Reggie gives a speech in favour of social assistance to low income family (i,e. welfare). when he later encounters a persuasive message about welfare, he is better able to resist persuasion▯ - a) reactance▯ - b) inoculation: given something to think about, later able to resist▯ - c) forewarning▯ - d) cognitive dissonance▯ ▯ Chapter 8: Social Influence▯ - descriptive versus injunctive norms▯ - informational versus normative social influence▯ - inducing compliance▯ - reciprocity (door-in-the-face and that’s-not-all)▯ - consistency (foot-in-the-door and lowballing)▯ - scarcity (deadline, hard-to-get)▯ - Milgram’s study▯ ▯ Practice Question▯ - defining personal space is an example of:▯ - a) social norms▯ - b) community rules▯ - - c) societal guidelines▯ d) social comparison▯ ▯ Chapter 9: Group Processes▯ - influence of group on members:▯ - collectivistic▯ - individualistic▯ - social facilitation: group creates a level of excitement to be part of a group, facilitates a type of behaviour, due to arousal induced in individual group members▯ - social loafing: negative consequences, not one person’s responsibility to complete a task▯ - group polarization: when becoming part of a group, people tend to make an extreme decision as part of a group rather than their own decision▯ - leadership and women leaders▯ - social dilemmas (example: common resource dilemma, prisoner’s dilemma)▯ ▯ Practice Question▯ - which of the following is NOT a strategy suggested to resolve social dilemmas?▯ - a) use persuasive messages regarding the resource▯ - b) create small, connected groups▯ - c) create consequences for competition▯ - d) encourage face-to-face communication▯ ▯ Chapter 10: Intergroup Relations (p. 320-332)▯ - influence on group members▯ - de-individuation▯ - Zimbardo’s study▯ - riot in Vancouver 2011▯ - social identity theory▯ ▯ Practice Question 4▯ - fraternity “pledges” are not quite full members of a fraternity. Pledges are especially likely to publicly derogate other fraternities, a condition that supports the▯ - a) social dominance▯ - b) deprivation theory▯ - c) social identity theory▯ - d) relative deprivation ▯ ▯ Lecture: Conformity▯ - Autokinetic Studies (Sherif, 1936)▯ - ambiguous situation and conformity▯ - level of conformity when situation is confusing/unclear (no correct/wrong answer)▯ - example: pee in a cup demonstration▯ - when people are by themselves, they repot according to what they see▯ - when people are with others, people look at each other and modify their response accordingly▯ - once people modify their opinion, if you test them later, they still maintain the response consistent with the group▯ ▯ Asch’s Studies▯ - Soloman Asch’s studies▯ - unambiguous stimuli▯ - participants alone: <1% errors▯ - participants in groups: 23% always gave the correct answer, 77% at least gave one wrong answer (32% gave 7 or more wrong answers)▯ ▯ Multigenerational Norms▯ - study of transition of norms from generation to generation by MacNeil and Sherif (1976)▯ - four person group in a laboratory ▯ - three members were confederates▯ - establishing an arbitrary group norm of 12 inches▯ - completing 30 judgement trials▯ - replacing one of the confederates with a new naive member after 30 judgement trials▯ ▯ Factors Related to Conformity▯ - nature of the task▯ - individual differences▯ - group size▯ ▯ Why the Majority Doesn’t Always Ru
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