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Lecture

PSYCH 1200 - CH 9.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
Anneke Olthof

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PSYCH 1200 Chapter 9 (376-98)
Intelligence a concept/construct that refers to the ability to acquire knowledge, to think & reason
effectively, & to deal adaptively w/environment
Binet concerned w/finding means to identify “mental defective” children
Standardized interview adult examiner posed a series of questions to a child to determine whether
the child was performing at the correct mental level for his or her age Mental age
Intelligence quotient (IQ) (Stern) originally based on ratio of mental age to chronological age IQ =
Mental chronological age x 100
Deviation IQ represents how much standardized distance/deviation a score is above/below the mean
for the particular sample
Achievement test designed to find out how much one has learned
Aptitude test goes beyond prior learning & thought to measure applicant’s potential for future
learning & performance
Psychological test method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept,
or construct, based on sample of relevant behaviour in scientifically designed & controlled situation
Reliability consistency of measurement
Test-retest reliability type of measurement consistency assessed by administering the
measure to same group of participants on 2 separate occasions & correlating the 2 sets of scores
Internal consistency has to do w/consistency of measurement w/in the test itself
Interjudge reliability consistency of measurement when different ppl score the same test
Validity how well a test actually measures what it is designed to measure
Construct perfect construct validity = individual differences in IQ’s due to differences in only
intelligence
Content whether items on a test measure all the knowledge or skills assumed to compromise
the construct of interest
Predictive how highly test scores correlate w/or can predict criterion measures
Standardization creating a well-controlled environment for administering the intelligence test so that
other uncontrolled factors will not influence scores
Norms test scores from a large sample that represents particular age segments of the popn.
Normal distribution bell-shaped curve formed by scores; most scores cluster around centre
Psychometric approach attempts to map structure of intellect & specify kinds of mental ability that
underlie test performance
Cognitive process approach studies the specific thought processes that underlie mental competencies
Psychometrics statistical study of psychological tests
Factor analysis analyzes patterns of correlations between test scores in order to discover clusters of
measures that correlate highly w/one another but not w/measures in other clusters
Primary mental abilities (Thurstone) 7 distinct abilities on which human mental performance depends
Crystallized intelligence ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems
Fluid intelligence ability to deal w/novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience
does not provide a solution
Theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner) linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial measured by
existing measurement tests; musical, body-kinaesthetic, & personal critics insist not really intelligence
Savants intellectually disabled ppl who exhibit skills in specific areas (i.e. ability to memorize hundreds
of television commercials word-for-word after hearing them only once)
- g/g-factor = general intelligence
Emotional intelligence ability to: read others’ emotions accurately, respond to them appropriately,
motivate oneself, be aware of one’s own emotions, & regulate & control own emotional responses
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