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PSYCH 1200 - CH 11.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

PSYCH 1200Ch 11some children exposed to extreme adversity are highly resilientthrive later in lifeDevelopmental psychologychanges in biological physical psychologicalbehavioural processes 4 broad issues of developmental researcho Nature vs nurture o Critical age range in which certain experiences must occurSensitive periods optimal age range for certain experiences o Continuity vs discontinuity o Stability vs change 5 developmental psychologists A No changeD Inverted Ushaped function B Continuous change continuity E Ushaped function C Stages discontinuityCrosssectional designeg compare ppl of different agesame point in time intellectual abilities o Quick data collection o Drawback cohorts different age groups grew up in different historical periods Longitudinal designrepeatedly tests same cohort as it grows older o Drawback time consuming sample may shrink Sequential designcombines crosssectionallongitudinal approaches can repeatedly test several age cohorts as they grow olderdetermine patterns comprehensive but time consumingcostlyPRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Germinal stagefirst 2 wks from when one sperm fertilizes a female egg ovum zygote o Repeated cell division zygote becomes mass of cells attaches to mothers uterus 1014 days after conceptionEmbryonic stagewk 28 embryo cell mass cells divide rapidly bodily organssystems begin to formby wk 8 its 2 cm long heart is beating brain formingfacial features can be recognized o Placentaumbilical cord lifesupport structures develop Placentalocated on uterine wall contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from mothers blood to umbilical cord protects from danger Umbilical cordcontains blood vessel that carry the nutrientsoxygen to the embryowaste products back from the embryo to the motherFetal stagewk 9birth fetus muscles become strongerother bodily systems continue to develop o Wk 24 eyes open o Behavioural responseslearning begin Age of viabilitywk 28 it is likely to survive outside the womb in case of premature birth TDF testisdetermining factor geneY chromosomes specific gene triggers male sexual developmento Initiates development of testes at approx 68 wksEggsperm cell having a Y chromosome XY combo boy o Sperm having X chromosome XX combo girl Teratogensenvironmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal developmentStress hormones can increase risk of premature birth infant irritabilityattention deficits Fetal alcohol syndrome FASgroup of abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to maternal alcohol consumption facial abnormalities small malformed brainssmall stature o IQ finegross motor impairments poor adaptive functioning communicationADHD
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