PSYCH 1200 - CH 14.doc

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31 Mar 2012
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Psych 1200 – Ch 14
Counseling & clinical psychologiststypically hold a PhD; know variety of psychotherapeutic
techniques + training in research & psychological assessment techniques
Psychiatrists – medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy & biomedical treatments (i.e.
drug therapy)
- Psychiatric social workers, marriage & family counselors, & abuse counselors
Difficulty evaluating psychotherapies because: hard to standardize (each case is different);
difficulty measuring effects of psychology
- Psychodynamic approach focuses on internal conflict & unconscious factors that underlie
maladaptive behavior
Insight – conscious awareness of psychodynamics that underlie problems
Free association (Freud) – clients recline on a couch & report verbally w/o censorship any
thoughts, feelings, or images
- Psychoanalysts believe dreams express impulses, fantasies, & wishes kept in unconscious
Resistance – defensive manoeuvres that hinder/delay process of therapy
Transferenceclient responds irrationally to the analyst as if they were an important figure from
the client’s past
Positive transference – client transfers feelings of intense affection, dependency, or live
to the analyst
Negative transferenceirrational expressions of anger, hatred, or disappointment
Interpretation – any statement by therapist intended to provide the client w/insight into his/her
behaviour or dynamics
Interpersonal therapy – brief psychodynamic therapy; highly structured & seldom takes longer
than 15-20 session focuses on client’s current interpersonal problems
- Humanistic theorists view humans as capable of consciously controlling their actions & taking
responsibility for their choices & behaviour
Client-centred therapy (Rogers) – “person-centred”; 3 important & interrelated attributes:
Unconditional positive regard – communicated when therapists show clients that they
genuinely care about & accept them, w/o judgement or evaluation
Empathywillingness & ability to view the world through the client’s eyes
Genuineness – must be consistency between way therapist feels & way they behave
Gestalt therapy goal to bring important feelings, wishes, & thoughts into immediate
awareness make “whole”
oOften carried out in groups; more active & dramatic techniques; confrontational
Empty-chair technique – client may be asked to imagine his mother sitting in chair &
carry on a convo (role-plays mother & himself) telling her how he feels about important
issues evokes powerful feelings & makes clients aware of unresolved issues
-Cognitive approaches focus on role of irrational & self-defeating thought patterns help
discover & change cognitions that underlie the problems
Ellis’s Rational-Emotive therapy Aactivating event triggers emotion
Bbelief system underlies how person assesses the event
Cconsequences emotional & behavioural of the assessment
Ddisputing (challenging) an erroneous belief system (key to
changing maladaptive emotions & behaviours)
oIntroduces clients to common irrational ideas train them to ferret out particular ideas
that underlie their maladaptive emotional responses
Beck’s cognitive theory – goal to point out errors of thinking & logic that underlie emotional
disturbance help clients identify & reprogram their over-learned “auto” thought patterns
Self-instructional training (Meichenbaum) – influential in treatments related to stress & coping
-Behavioural approach denies importance of inner dynamics insist that:
(1) Behaviour disorders are learned in same way as normal behaviours are
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