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PSYC 2310
Tad Mc Ilwraith

Psychology Notes Psychology-The scientific study of behaviour. Gestalt Psychology-German school of psychology, emphasizes insight and problem solving. Ph. D (Doctor of Philosophy)-the person has a doctoral dissertation which is an independent piece of research and follows an undergraduate degree and graduate school in psychology (4 years plus 4-6 years) MA (Masters Degree)-Psychological associate, part psychologist Clinical Psychologist-Get an undergraduate degree, then graduate school in psychology, then 1 yr internship, work in a hospital or university. -Psychologists cannot prescribe prescriptions -Works with children and adults to fix and assess psychological issues. Registered Psychologist- Follows a clinical psychologist and takes an additional year of training and exams to become a registered psychologist. Psychiatrist-Have an undergraduate degree then go to medical school and get an MD then do supervised psychiatry then work in a hospital etc. -Psychiatrists can prescribe drugs because they have a medical degree. Psychoanalyst- the top end of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Additional training in a psychoanalytical institute to become a psychoanalyst. APA- American Psychological Association. Only a few psychologists in America. Small groups of men who thought highly of each other. Most were in philosophy or had MD. CPA-Canadian Psychological Association. Made journals, programs etc to incorporate all things such as psychology, philosophy, biology, evolution etc. People were generally members of both associations. Peer Reviewed Journals-Is an article send out to experts in the field and they assess whether it is true or not. Wilhelm Wundt-He was a philosopher and physician and he set up labs to research sensory perception. He taught people who went back to their countries and spread his ideas. Charles Darwin- He planned to be a minister or a doctor but was a naturalist. He focused on patterns of emotion and natural selection/sexual selection or emotional evolution and mate selection. Natural Selection- The genes that make people more likely to survive are passed on. Ivan Pavlov-Won nobel prize in physiology. He measured saliva production. He would use a metronome when feeding the dog eventually the dog would automatically salivate when hearing the metronome. Mary Whiton Calkins-First woman president of the APA. Men had women working in the labs because believed womens make-up made them unsuitable to do psychology. Paradigms- There is no certainty in psychology and no unifying paradigm. Cognitive Perspective- Views humans as information processors who think, judge and solve problems. Biological Perspective- Focuses on the role of biological factors and behaviours, brain processing and genetic factors. Sociobiology-Adaptive behaviour of keeping ones genes in the gene pool through social behaviour. Sociocultural perspective-Emphasizes the similarities and differences in human behaviour through the roles of culture and social environment. Psychodynamic Perspective-calls attention to unconscious motives, conflicts and defense mechanisms that influence personality and bahaviour. Behavioural Perspective-should only study observable stimuli and responses. Humanists-reject the idea that people are controlled by unconscious forces or just react to the environmental. Emphasize freedom, psychological growth and self actualization. Sociological Perspective-how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behaviour. 3 major Analysiss-Biological-focuses on brain process, genetic influences, and evolutionary adaptations. Psychological-examines mental process, psychological motives and how they influence behaviour. Environmental-physical and social stimuli that shapes behaviour. Collectivism-Cultural factor emphasizes the achievement of a group instead of individual achievement. Functionalism-Focuses on the functions of consciousness and behaviours of organisms to adapt to the environment. Structuralism-Breaking down of the mind into basic components (sensations) Jigsaw Program-Different races had information and they had to work together to find out all the information and this program is trying to reduce racism. Mind, Body Dualism-the body and the mind are separate entities. Monism- The mind and the body are one and the same. Theory-A set of statements that explain how and why certain events are related. -Catharsis theory-if you watch powerful emotional forces you lose some emotions. Social learning theory-watch what happens, learn strategies for dealing with situations. Hypothesis-Based off of the theory you agree with. You try to prove or disprove it. Experiment-Manipulate an independent variable and keep constant other variables and measure the effect of the dependent variable. Manipulation and control-e.g. manipulate the hours of sleep (8hrs vs. 4hrs) and control temperature noise, light then you measure the reading comprehension of the test. Independent Variable-Thing you manipulate/change and keep other variables the same and measure the effects. Dependent Variable-Stays constant and the independent variable is applied to it. Ethical Approval-Before a study can begin an ethical review must happen. APA and CPA have ethical codes, the university committee must approve as well as school board and possible co-operation of teachers, parents or children. Random Sample-That every person (of the group you are testing) has an equal chance of getting into the study. E.g. random sample of our class would be using the class lost and picking every 3 person. Its very hard to get. Random assignment to conditions- equal chance to get in either group. E,g, equal chance to get in 8hr sleep group or 4 hrs sleep group. Experimental group-the group that has the thing they are testing e.g. actual drug that may cure cancerControl Group-the group that doesnt have the thing they are testing, e.g. placebo that has no effect on the body. Mean-average of group, add all the ppl together and then divide it by the number of ppl. Standard Deviation-how spread out the scores are. Significant Difference-the probability of it happening is less that .05 but it doesnt mean that it is powerful, important useful or applies to all. T-test- testing the probability to see if it is less than .05 which makes it significant. Steps for conclusions-1 asking questions based on observation. 2 From a tentative explanation. 3 Conduct research to test hypothesis. 4 Analyze data draw tentative conclusions. 5 build a theory. 6 use theory to generate new hypothesis and more testing. Double blind procedure-Researcher and participant do not know which condition the participant is assigned to (control or manipulated group) Experimenter expectancy effects-Subtle and unintentional ways an experimenter influences the participants to act a certain way. Which usually proves their hypothesis correct. External Validity-The way a study can be generalized to apply to other people/settings/conditions. Placebo effect-Changing behaviour that occurs because the belief that they are receiving the treatment. Descriptive Research-identify how organisms behave particularly in a natural setting. Naturalistic Observation- gathers information about behaviour in real-life settings. Researchers must
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