PSYC 2310 Lecture Notes - American Psychological Association, Clinical Psychology, Psychological Testing
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Psychology-The scientific study of behaviour.
Gestalt Psychology-German school of psychology, emphasizes insight and problem
Ph. D (Doctor of Philosophy)-the person has a doctoral dissertation which is an
independent piece of research and follows an undergraduate degree and graduate school in
psychology (4 years plus 4-6 years)
MA (Masters Degree)-Psychological associate, part psychologist
Clinical Psychologist-Get an undergraduate degree, then graduate school in psychology,
then 1 yr internship, work in a hospital or university.
-Psychologists cannot prescribe prescriptions
-Works with children and adults to fix and assess psychological issues.
Registered Psychologist- Follows a clinical psychologist and takes an additional year of
training and exams to become a registered psychologist.
Psychiatrist-Have an undergraduate degree then go to medical school and get an MD then
do supervised psychiatry then work in a hospital etc.
-Psychiatrists can prescribe drugs because they have a medical degree.
Psychoanalyst- the top end of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Additional training in a
psychoanalytical institute to become a psychoanalyst.
APA- American Psychological Association. Only a few psychologists in America. Small
groups of men who thought highly of each other. Most were in philosophy or had MD.
CPA-Canadian Psychological Association. Made journals, programs etc to incorporate all
things such as psychology, philosophy, biology, evolution etc. People were generally
members of both associations.
Peer Reviewed Journals-Is an article send out to experts in the field and they assess
whether it is true or not.
Wilhelm Wundt-He was a philosopher and physician and he set up labs to research
sensory perception. He taught people who went back to their countries and spread his ideas.
Charles Darwin- He planned to be a minister or a doctor but was a naturalist. He focused
on patterns of emotion and natural selection/sexual selection or emotional evolution and
Natural Selection- The genes that make people more likely to survive are passed on.
Ivan Pavlov-Won nobel prize in physiology. He measured saliva production. He would use
a metronome when feeding the dog eventually the dog would automatically salivate when
hearing the metronome.
Mary Whiton Calkins-First woman president of the APA. Men had women working in
the labs because believed women’s make-up made them unsuitable to do psychology.
Paradigms- There is no certainty in psychology and no unifying paradigm.
Cognitive Perspective- Views humans as information processors who think, judge and
Biological Perspective- Focuses on the role of biological factors and behaviours, brain
processing and genetic factors.
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Sociobiology-Adaptive behaviour of keeping ones genes in the gene pool through social
Sociocultural perspective-Emphasizes the similarities and differences in human behaviour
through the roles of culture and social environment.
Psychodynamic Perspective-calls attention to unconscious motives, conflicts and defense
mechanisms that influence personality and bahaviour.
Behavioural Perspective-should only study observable stimuli and responses.
Humanists-reject the idea that people are controlled by unconscious forces or just react to
the environmental. Emphasize freedom, psychological growth and self actualization.
Sociological Perspective-how the social environment and cultural learning influence our
3 major Analysis’s-Biological-focuses on brain process, genetic influences, and
evolutionary adaptations. Psychological-examines mental process, psychological motives
and how they influence behaviour. Environmental-physical and social stimuli that shapes
Collectivism-Cultural factor emphasizes the achievement of a group instead of individual
Functionalism-Focuses on the functions of consciousness and behaviours of organisms to
adapt to the environment.
Structuralism-Breaking down of the mind into basic components (sensations)
Jigsaw Program-Different races had information and they had to work together to find out
all the information and this program is trying to reduce racism.
Mind, Body Dualism-the body and the mind are separate entities.
Monism- The mind and the body are one and the same.
Theory-A set of statements that explain how and why certain events are related.
-Catharsis theory-if you watch powerful emotional forces you lose some emotions.
Social learning theory-watch what happens, learn strategies for dealing with situations.
Hypothesis-Based off of the theory you agree with. You try to prove or disprove it.
Experiment-Manipulate an independent variable and keep constant other variables and
measure the effect of the dependent variable.
Manipulation and control-e.g. manipulate the hours of sleep (8hrs vs. 4hrs) and control
temperature noise, light then you measure the reading comprehension of the test.
Independent Variable-Thing you manipulate/change and keep other variables the same
and measure the effects.
Dependent Variable-Stays constant and the independent variable is applied to it.
Ethical Approval-Before a study can begin an ethical review must happen. APA and CPA
have ethical codes, the university committee must approve as well as school board and
possible co-operation of teachers, parents or children.
Random Sample-That every person (of the group you are testing) has an equal chance of
getting into the study. E.g. random sample of our class would be using the class lost and
picking every 3rd person. Its very hard to get.
Random assignment to conditions- equal chance to get in either group. E,g, equal chance
to get in 8hr sleep group or 4 hrs sleep group.
Experimental group-the group that has the thing they are testing e.g. actual drug that may
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Control Group-the group that doesn’t have the thing they are testing, e.g. placebo that has
no effect on the body.
Mean-average of group, add all the ppl together and then divide it by the number of ppl.
Standard Deviation-how spread out the scores are.
Significant Difference-the probability of it happening is less that .05 but it doesn’t mean
that it is powerful, important useful or applies to all.
T-test- testing the probability to see if it is less than .05 which makes it significant.
Steps for conclusions-1 asking questions based on observation. 2 From a tentative
explanation. 3 Conduct research to test hypothesis. 4 Analyze data draw tentative
conclusions. 5 build a theory. 6 use theory to generate new hypothesis and more testing.
Double blind procedure-Researcher and participant do not know which condition the
participant is assigned to (control or manipulated group)
Experimenter expectancy effects-Subtle and unintentional ways an experimenter
influences the participants to act a certain way. Which usually proves their hypothesis
External Validity-The way a study can be generalized to apply to other
Placebo effect-Changing behaviour that occurs because the belief that they are receiving
Descriptive Research-identify how organisms behave particularly in a natural setting.
Naturalistic Observation- gathers information about behaviour in real-life settings.
Researchers must be careful not to influence the behaviour.
Surveys- Involve administering questionnaires or interviews to many people.
Self-Actualisation- Instinct to strive towards realizing and achieving your full potential.
Terror Management Theory-How people defend against the fear of death.
Correlational Studies-testing to see if there is a correlation between naturally occurring
variables. NO manipulation of variables.
Correlation coefficient- a number from -1 to +1
Positive Correlation- that higher scores on 1 variable means high scores on the other
Negative correlation-means higher scores on 1variable means lower scores on the other.
Zero correlation-That 1 thing does not cause the other thing. No relationship.
Statistical significance-Having a p of .05 or less. Means that the correlation is significant.
Probability Level-Probability that the correlation happened by accident.
Causal Relationships- don’t know what causes what. Whether X causes Y or is Y causes
X or is another thing causes both X and Y.
Correlational fallacy-Concluding from a single study/correlation and applying it to
everything…way too generalized.
Multivariate statistics-lots of correlations no just 1. use to see if there is a pattern and can
help to see which causes which.
Myelin Sheath-It is there to help nerves transport messages easier. At birth the auditory
nerve has this which means children have a higher threshold than adults (louder sounds
wont faze them)
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