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Lecture

PSYC 2310 Lecture Notes - Albert Bandura, Ibm Officevision, Educational Psychologist


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2310
Professor
Anneke Olthof

Page:
of 21
Dynamics of Behaviour 9/8/2011 12:32:00 PM
What is psychology?
- Diverse field
o Levels of analysis
- Learning about ourselves
- A science that requires critical thinking
Four Goals of Psychologists:
1. Describe
2. Explain
3. Predict
4. Apply
9/8/2011 12:32:00 PM
Psychology: scientific study of behaviour and the mind.
Behaviour: actions and responses that we can directly observe.
Mind: internal states and processes, such as thoughts and feelings, that cannot
be seen directly and must be inferred from observable, measureable responses.
Clinical psychology: the study and treatment of mental disorders.
Cognitive psychology: study of mental processes, especially from a model that
views the mind as an information processor. Examines consciousness, attention,
memory, decision making and problem solving.
Psycholinguistics: psychology of language.
Empirical Evidence: evidence gained through experience and observation, and
this includes evidence from manipulating with things and then observing what
happens.
Levels of Analysis
Biological Level: behavior and its causes (brain processes, genetic influences).
Psychological Level: our thoughts, feelings and motives.
Environmental Level: past and current physical and social environments to which we are
exposed.
PSYCHOLOGY’S INTELLECTUAL ROOTS
o Mind-body Dualism: the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical
laws that govern the body.
o Monism: (Greek: monos, meaning “one”) the mind and body are one and the mind is not
a separate spiritual entity.
o British Empiricism: ideas and knowledge is gained empirically- through the senses.
EARLY SCHOOLS: STRUCTALISM AND FUNCTIONALISM
Structuralism
: the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements.
Method used: introspection (“looking within”) to study sensations
Participants exposed to sensory stimuli and describe inner experiences
Said to be too subjective and died out after few decades
Functionalism
: studies functions of consciousness rather than structure.
Influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution
Importance of adaptation in order to survive and reproduce in
environment
No longer is a school of thought in psychology
Endures in Cognitive Psychology (studies mental processes) and
Evolutionary Psychology (adaptiveness of behavior)
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE: THE FORCES WITHIN
Psychodynamic perspective: searches for the causes of behavior within the inner workings of
our personality, emphasizing the role of unconscious processes.
first and most influential theory developed by Freud.
Free association: expression of any thoughts that come to mind.
Psychoanalysis: analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces.
The BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions.
Behavior determined by habits learned in previous life experience and stimuli
in our immediate environment.
Roots in philosophical school of British empiricism.