PSYC 2310 Lecture Notes - Group Dynamics, Relative Deprivation, Henri Tajfel

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13 Nov 2012
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Intergroup Relations
Altruistic Helping
- According to empathy-altruism hypothesis people are not primarily selfish, at least not always
- Is it altruism?
1. Mary, an attorney, stops to aid the victim of an automobile accident No
2. Simon attempts to save his three-year-old from drowning No, pro-social
3. Bob, a university student, spends three hours per week as a Big Brother to an 8 year old whose father
died Maybe, could also be egoistic pro-social
4. Jill, a university student, gives a pint of blood in exchange for $7.50 No
5. Believing that those who give shall receive great blessing in return, Ali contributes their families
monthly paycheck to their church fund drive No
6. Newsha anonymously donates $500 to a local charity
7. Esmeralda agrees to donate her eyes for transplant in the event of her death egoistic
Helping Strangers
- Cross cultural differences in helping strangers (Levine, Norenzayan, and Philbrick, 2001)
- Large cities in 23 countries
- Three conditions of helping were:
- dropped pen
- hurt leg
- helping a blind person across the street
Definition of intergroup behaviour
- Whenever individuals belonging to one group interact, collectively or individually, with another group
or its members in terms of their group identification, we have an instance of intergroup behaviour
- Dyadic level individual level, aware you don’t belong to the same group
- Intergroup level
Social Cognition: Categorization
- Categorization is one of the fundamental cognitive processes in humans
- Categorization is the lumping together of objects and events into meaningful groupings
- Why do we categorize?
- To reduce complexity of the world
- Principle of least effort
- Human cognitive capacity is limited
- Categorization is an efficient way to deal with wide stimuli
Social categorization
- Natural categories vs. social categories
- Social categorization is classification of people into groups based on common attributes
- Major social categorizations are:
- Gender
- Ethnicity
- Age
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