This is the majority view in economics, political science, and philosophy (mansbridge 1990) Why do we act to benefit others: we care about welfare of others (altruistic motivation, we care about ourselves (egoistic motivation) There is a strong assumption in psychology of universal egoism. Silent witnesses: the kitty genovese murder (1964) Alternative analysis: the probable of the 38 witness (manning, levine, collins, 2007) Darley & latane (1968) came up with an ingenious answer. They suggested that after noticing the problem, people have to take a sequential. 3 fundamental forms of egoistic prosocial behaviour: gaining rewards, avoiding punishment, reducing aversive arousal. Advocates of altruism suggest that the self-benefits are unintended consequences of reaching the ultimate goal of benefiting the other (batson 1995) Kinship selection more likely to help relatives (preferential helping) They argue that there are circumstances under which benefiting others is the ultimate goal.